Clinical Institute of Medical

Laboratory, Germany

Clinical Institute of Medical

Laboratory, Germany
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Krause R.,Medical University of Graz | Zollner-Schwetz I.,Medical University of Graz | Salzer H.J.F.,Medical University of Graz | Salzer H.J.F.,University of Hamburg | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background. The interplay between Candida species and pattern recognition receptors, interleukins, kynurenine, and T cells has been studied in murine and ex vivo human studies, but data are lacking from patients with invasive fungal infections. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is considered an important component in host defense against Candida infections and is modulated by Candida-induced impairment of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Methods. Dectin-1, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4 expression; regulatory T cell (Treg) percentages; and interleukin 6, interleukin 10, IL-17A, interleukin 22, interleukin 23, interferon γ, kynurenine, and tryptophan levels were determined in candidemic patients and compared to levels in noncandidemic patients who are in the intensive care unit (ICU) and receiving antibiotic therapy and those in healthy controls, both with and without Candida colonization. Results. Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients, including Candida-colonized ICU patients and healthy controls. Within candidemic patients, time-dependent elevation of IL-17A and kynurenine levels was detected. IL-17A areas under the curve for differentiation between patients with early candidemia and those without candidemia (ICU patients, including Candida-colonized patients, and healthy controls) were between 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI],. 89-.99) and 0.99 (95% CI,. 99-1). Conclusions. Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients. The statistically significant association between IL-17A and kynurenine levels and candidemia suggests their potential as biomarkers for anticipation of invasive candidiasis. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00786903. © 2014 The Author.

Mangge H.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Almer G.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Truschnig-Wilders M.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Schmidt A.,Medical University of Graz | And 2 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

The development of atherosclerotic lesions leading to myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke encompasses a cascade of cellular and molecular events that can well be characterized as a chronic immune-mediated inflammation occurring preferentially in the biologic surrounding of the so called metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, chemokines, cytokines, and their receptors are critically involved in the initiation and perpetuation of atherosclerosis, and they play important roles at all levels in the pathogenesis of this disease. Metabolic risk profiles associated with sedentary lifestyle, obesity, especially intra-abdominal fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia pave the way for a chronic, immunemediated vascular inflammation around vascular lipid deposits. In the present article, the impact of adiponectin, monocyte and T-cell associated cytokines (with emphasis on Neopterin), individual adipose tissue - distribution, and pleiotropic drug effects on the individual course of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular disease are reviewed. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Marz W.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Marz W.,University of Heidelberg | Meinitzer A.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Drechsler C.,University of Würzburg | And 8 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2010

Background-: Homoarginine is an amino acid derivative that may increase nitric oxide availability and enhance endothelial function. The effect of the level of homoarginine on cardiovascular outcome and mortality is unknown. Methods and results-: We assessed cardiovascular and all-cause mortality according to homoarginine levels in a cohort of 3305 subjects referred for coronary angiography from the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study. After investigating the relation of homoarginine with kidney function and markers of endothelial dysfunction, we explored its effects on adverse outcomes in a second high-risk cohort of 1244 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving maintenance hemodialysis (4D study [Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie]). In the LURIC study, mean serum homoarginine levels were 2.6±1.1 μmol/L. During a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 766 patients died. After adjustments for age and sex, patients in the lowest quartile (<1.85 μmol/L) had a >4-fold higher rate of dying of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 3.0 to 5.7) than patients in the highest quartile (>3.1 μmol/L). Lower homoarginine levels were associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Hemodialysed patients had lower mean homoarginine levels of 1.2±0.5 μmol/L and experienced a 5-fold increased mortality rate compared with LURIC patients (608 deaths during a median follow-up of 4 years). Homoarginine consistently affected mortality, which was 2-fold higher in 4D study patients in the lowest quartile (<0.87 μmol/L) than in patients in the highest quartile (>1.4 μmol/L). Conclusions-: Homoarginine levels are independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography and in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Future studies are needed to elucidate the underlying pathomechanisms. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Leistner D.M.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Klotsche J.,TU Dresden | Pieper L.,TU Dresden | Stalla G.K.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | And 7 more authors.
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana | Year: 2012

Background: Measuring circulating cardiac troponin using novel sensitive assays has revealed that even minute elevations are associated with increased mortality in patients with coronary artery disease or even in the general population. Less well defined, however, is the incremental value of measuring circulating cardiac troponin I (cTnI) by a sensitive assay for risk assessment in primary prevention. Methods: We measured circulating concentrations of cTnI, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in 5388 individuals free of known cardiovascular disease recruited into the DETECT study, a prospective longitudinal population-based cohort study. We determined the prognostic implications for incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during 5 years of follow-up. © 2012 Federacion Bioquimica de la Provincia de Buenos Aires.

Schneider A.,University of Würzburg | Gutjahr-Lengsfeld L.,University of Würzburg | Ritz E.,University of Heidelberg | Scharnagl H.,Clinical Institute of Medical | And 5 more authors.
Nephron - Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

Background: Dose requirements of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) can vary considerably over time and may be associated with cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to longitudinally assess ESA responsiveness over time and to investigate its association with specific clinical end points in a time-dependent approach. Methods: The German Diabetes and Dialysis study (4D study) included 1,255 diabetic dialysis patients, of whom 1,161 were receiving ESA treatment. In those patients, the erythropoietin resistance index (ERI) was assessed every 6 months during a median follow-up of 4 years. The association between the ERI and cardiovascular end points was analyzed by time-dependent Cox regression analyses with repeated ERI measures. Results: Patients had a mean age of 66 ± 8.2 years; 53% were male. During follow-up, a total of 495 patients died, of whom 136 died of sudden death and 102 of infectious death. The adjusted and time-dependent risk for sudden death was increased by 19% per 5-unit increase in the ERI (hazard ratio, HR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.07-1.33). Similarly, mortality increased by 25% (HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.18-1.32) and infectious death increased by 27% (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.13-1.42). Further analysis revealed that lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were associated with lower ESA responsiveness (p = 0.046). Conclusions: In diabetic dialysis patients, we observed that time-varying erythropoietin resistance is associated with sudden death, infectious complications and all-cause mortality. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may contribute to a lower ESA responsiveness. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Bengesser S.A.,Medical University of Graz | Lackner N.,Medical University of Graz | Birner A.,Medical University of Graz | Fellendorf F.T.,Medical University of Graz | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2015

Results The major finding was a significantly decreased TAC in BD compared to the CG (p<0.01; BD: M 1.18, SD 0.47; CG: M 1.39, SD 0.49). MDA was significantly and TBARS by trend higher in the CG compared to the euthymic bipolar test persons (MDA: p<0.01, BD: M 0.70, SD 0.18; CG: M 0.81, SD 0.25; TBARS: p<0.1, BD: M 0.78, SD 0.28; CG: M 0.76, SD 0.30). The antioxidative enzyme GST was significantly elevated in both patients and controls (BD: M 298.24, SD 133.02; CG: M 307.27 SD 118.18). Subgroup analysis revealed that the CG with concurrent MetS and obesity had significantly elevated TAC when compared to CG without concurrent MetS (p<0.05, no MetS: M 1.33, SD 0.50; MetS: M 1.67, SD 0.32), as well as persons with BD with or without current MetS (no MetS: M 1.18, SD 0.44; MetS: M 1.15, SD 0.49). Significant correlations between GST and anthropometric variables were found in male study participants. Multivariate analysis indicated a significant gender effect concerning TBARS values in all patients and CG (p<0.01, females: M 0.73, SD 0.29; males: M 0.83, SD 0.28).Methods Peripheral markers of oxidative stress [i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, (TBARS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and carbonyl proteins] and antioxidant markers [e.g. total antioxidative capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST)] were obtained in a cohort of euthymic adults with BD (N=113) and compared to healthy controls (CG) (N=78). Additionally, anthropometric measures included the body mass index (BMI) [kg/m2], waist and hip circumference [cm], waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WtHR) as well as the IDF-defined MetS.Introduction Oxidative and nitrosative stress are implicated in the pathogenesis of uni- and bipolar disorder. Herein we primarily sought to characterize markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress during euthymia in adults with bipolar disorder (BD). Oxidative markers were further evaluated in this BD sample in synopsis with excess overweight or obesity and/or comorbid metabolic syndrome (MetS).Conclusion Euthymic bipolar adults exhibit peripheral evidence of a disturbed biosignature of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense. Male test persons showed significantly higher peripheral markers of oxidative stress than women- female sex may exert protective effects. Furthermore, the biosignature of oxidative stress obtained herein was more pronounced in males with concurrent metabolic disorders. Our results further extend knowledge by introducing the moderating influence of gender and obesity on oxidative stress and BD. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tomaschitz A.,Medical University of Graz | Piecha G.,Medical University of Silesia, Katowice | Ritz E.,University of Heidelberg | Meinitzer A.,Clinical Institute of Medical | And 15 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension | Year: 2015

Background: The cardiotonic steroid marinobufagenin (MBG) is increasingly suggested to be responsible for some of the cardiovascular injury that has been previously attributed to aldosterone. We examined the clinical correlates of circulating MBG concentrations in hypertensive patients and tested the hypothesis that MBG serves as a reliable diagnostic tool for detecting primary aldosteronism (PA). Methods: Plasma MBG concentrations (mean: 0.51=±=0.25=nmol/l) were measured in the morning fasting samples in 20 patients with PA and 20 essential hypertensive (EH) controls matched for age, sex, body mass index, renal function, urinary sodium and intake of antihypertensive medication (mean age: 51.6 years; 52.2% women). Results: Overall, plasma MBG was directly correlated with plasma aldosterone, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR), diastolic blood pressure, mean carotid intima-media thickness, serum sodium, urinary protein to creatinine ratio and inversely with serum potassium levels. Plasma MBG levels were significantly higher in patients with PA compared to EH (mean: 0.68=±=0.12 versus 0.35=±=0.24=nmol/l; p=<=0.001). ROC analysis yielded a greater AUC for plasma MBG compared to the AARR, PAC and serum potassium levels for detecting PA. Youden's Index analyses yielded the optimal plasma MBG cut-off score for diagnosing PA at=>=0.49=nmol/l with specificity and sensitivity values of 0.85 and 0.95, respectively, which were higher than those at the optimum AARR cut-off at=>=3.32=ng/dl/U/ml. Conclusions: In a well-characterized cohort, values of plasma MBG were significantly related to clinical correlates of cardiovascular and renal disease. Plasma MBG emerged as a valuable alternative to the AARR for screening of PA. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Holzer M.,Medical University of Graz | Gauster M.,Institute of Cell Biology | Pfeifer T.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Fauler G.,Clinical Institute of Medical | And 5 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2011

Carbamylation of proteins through reactive cyanate has been demonstrated to predict an increased cardiovascular risk. Cyanate is formed in vivo by breakdown of urea and at sites of inflammation by the phagocyte protein myeloperoxidase. Because myeloperoxidase (MPO) associates with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human atherosclerotic intima, we examined in the present study whether cyanate specifically targets HDL. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that protein carbamylation is a major posttranslational modification of HDL. The carbamyllysine content of lesion-derived HDL was more than 20-fold higher in comparison with 3-chlorotyrosine levels, a specific oxidation product of MPO. Notably, the carbamyllysine content of lesion-derived HDL was five- to eightfold higher when compared with lesion-derived low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or total lesion protein and increased with lesion severity. The carbamyllysine content of HDL, but not of LDL, correlated with levels of 3-chlorotyrosine, suggesting that MPO mediated carbamylation in the vessel wall. Remarkably, one carbamyllysine residue per HDL-associated apolipoprotein A-I was sufficient to induce cholesterol accumulation and lipid-droplet formation in macrophages through a pathway requiring the HDL-receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I. The present results raise the possibility that HDL carbamylation contributes to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Gruber H.-J.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Bernecker C.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Lechner A.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Weiss S.,Medical University of Graz | And 8 more authors.
Cephalalgia | Year: 2010

Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in migraine attacks, but the role of NO in migraine remains unclear. We here hypothesize that increased NO in the headache-free period is associated with migraine. One hundred and thirty probands participated in this study. Various parameters of the NO pathway, such as nitrate, nitrite, arginine, citrulline, nitrosylated proteins, asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetrical dimethylarginine, expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase and two polymorphisms of eNOS were investigated. We found significant increased nitrate and decreased nitrite levels in migraineurs in the headache-free period. Nitrate and nitrite levels showed a significant inverse correlation. Logistic regression revealed an odds ratio of 3.6 for migraine. Other parameters of the NO pathway were neither altered in migraineurs nor correlated with nitrate. We show here that migraine patients suffer under sustained increased nitrosative stress in the headache-free period, which is associated with a 3.6-fold higher risk for migraine. © International Headache Society 2010.

Abedini S.,Toensberg County Hospital | Meinitzer A.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Holme I.,University of Oslo | Marz W.,Synlab For Medizinisches Versorgungzentrum For Labordiagnostik Heidelberg | And 4 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2010

Increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and predict the progression to dialysis and death in patients with chronic kidney disease. The effects of these increased ADMA levels in renal transplant recipients, however, are unknown. We used the data from ALERT, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of fluvastatin on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in 2102 renal transplant recipients with stable graft function on enrollment. Patients who were initially randomized to fluvastatin or placebo in the 5-to 6-year trial were offered open-label fluvastatin in a 2-year extension of the original study. After adjustment for baseline values for established factors in this post hoc analysis, ADMA was found to be a significant risk factor for graft failure or doubling of serum creatinine (hazard ratio 2.78), major cardiac events (hazard ratio 2.61), cerebrovascular events (hazard ratio 6.63), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 4.87). In this trial extension, the number of end points increased with increasing quartiles of plasma ADMA levels. All end points were significantly increased in the fourth compared to the first quartile. Our study shows that elevated plasma levels of ADMA are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and the deterioration of graft function in renal transplant recipients.

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