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Laboratory, Germany

Marz W.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Marz W.,University of Heidelberg | Meinitzer A.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Drechsler C.,University of Wurzburg | And 8 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2010

Background-: Homoarginine is an amino acid derivative that may increase nitric oxide availability and enhance endothelial function. The effect of the level of homoarginine on cardiovascular outcome and mortality is unknown. Methods and results-: We assessed cardiovascular and all-cause mortality according to homoarginine levels in a cohort of 3305 subjects referred for coronary angiography from the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study. After investigating the relation of homoarginine with kidney function and markers of endothelial dysfunction, we explored its effects on adverse outcomes in a second high-risk cohort of 1244 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving maintenance hemodialysis (4D study [Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie]). In the LURIC study, mean serum homoarginine levels were 2.6±1.1 μmol/L. During a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 766 patients died. After adjustments for age and sex, patients in the lowest quartile (<1.85 μmol/L) had a >4-fold higher rate of dying of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 3.0 to 5.7) than patients in the highest quartile (>3.1 μmol/L). Lower homoarginine levels were associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Hemodialysed patients had lower mean homoarginine levels of 1.2±0.5 μmol/L and experienced a 5-fold increased mortality rate compared with LURIC patients (608 deaths during a median follow-up of 4 years). Homoarginine consistently affected mortality, which was 2-fold higher in 4D study patients in the lowest quartile (<0.87 μmol/L) than in patients in the highest quartile (>1.4 μmol/L). Conclusions-: Homoarginine levels are independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography and in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Future studies are needed to elucidate the underlying pathomechanisms. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Schneider A.,University of Wurzburg | Gutjahr-Lengsfeld L.,University of Wurzburg | Ritz E.,University of Heidelberg | Scharnagl H.,Clinical Institute of Medical | And 5 more authors.
Nephron - Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

Background: Dose requirements of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) can vary considerably over time and may be associated with cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to longitudinally assess ESA responsiveness over time and to investigate its association with specific clinical end points in a time-dependent approach. Methods: The German Diabetes and Dialysis study (4D study) included 1,255 diabetic dialysis patients, of whom 1,161 were receiving ESA treatment. In those patients, the erythropoietin resistance index (ERI) was assessed every 6 months during a median follow-up of 4 years. The association between the ERI and cardiovascular end points was analyzed by time-dependent Cox regression analyses with repeated ERI measures. Results: Patients had a mean age of 66 ± 8.2 years; 53% were male. During follow-up, a total of 495 patients died, of whom 136 died of sudden death and 102 of infectious death. The adjusted and time-dependent risk for sudden death was increased by 19% per 5-unit increase in the ERI (hazard ratio, HR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.07-1.33). Similarly, mortality increased by 25% (HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.18-1.32) and infectious death increased by 27% (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.13-1.42). Further analysis revealed that lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were associated with lower ESA responsiveness (p = 0.046). Conclusions: In diabetic dialysis patients, we observed that time-varying erythropoietin resistance is associated with sudden death, infectious complications and all-cause mortality. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may contribute to a lower ESA responsiveness. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Holzer M.,Medical University of Graz | Gauster M.,Institute of Cell Biology | Pfeifer T.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Fauler G.,Clinical Institute of Medical | And 5 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2011

Carbamylation of proteins through reactive cyanate has been demonstrated to predict an increased cardiovascular risk. Cyanate is formed in vivo by breakdown of urea and at sites of inflammation by the phagocyte protein myeloperoxidase. Because myeloperoxidase (MPO) associates with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human atherosclerotic intima, we examined in the present study whether cyanate specifically targets HDL. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that protein carbamylation is a major posttranslational modification of HDL. The carbamyllysine content of lesion-derived HDL was more than 20-fold higher in comparison with 3-chlorotyrosine levels, a specific oxidation product of MPO. Notably, the carbamyllysine content of lesion-derived HDL was five- to eightfold higher when compared with lesion-derived low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or total lesion protein and increased with lesion severity. The carbamyllysine content of HDL, but not of LDL, correlated with levels of 3-chlorotyrosine, suggesting that MPO mediated carbamylation in the vessel wall. Remarkably, one carbamyllysine residue per HDL-associated apolipoprotein A-I was sufficient to induce cholesterol accumulation and lipid-droplet formation in macrophages through a pathway requiring the HDL-receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I. The present results raise the possibility that HDL carbamylation contributes to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Abedini S.,Renal Section | Meinitzer A.,Clinical Institute of Medical | Holme I.,University of Oslo | Marz W.,Synlab For Medizinisches Versorgungzentrum For Labordiagnostik Heidelberg | And 4 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2010

Increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and predict the progression to dialysis and death in patients with chronic kidney disease. The effects of these increased ADMA levels in renal transplant recipients, however, are unknown. We used the data from ALERT, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of fluvastatin on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in 2102 renal transplant recipients with stable graft function on enrollment. Patients who were initially randomized to fluvastatin or placebo in the 5-to 6-year trial were offered open-label fluvastatin in a 2-year extension of the original study. After adjustment for baseline values for established factors in this post hoc analysis, ADMA was found to be a significant risk factor for graft failure or doubling of serum creatinine (hazard ratio 2.78), major cardiac events (hazard ratio 2.61), cerebrovascular events (hazard ratio 6.63), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 4.87). In this trial extension, the number of end points increased with increasing quartiles of plasma ADMA levels. All end points were significantly increased in the fourth compared to the first quartile. Our study shows that elevated plasma levels of ADMA are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and the deterioration of graft function in renal transplant recipients. Source

Krause R.,Medical University of Graz | Zollner-Schwetz I.,Medical University of Graz | Salzer H.J.F.,Medical University of Graz | Salzer H.J.F.,University of Hamburg | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background. The interplay between Candida species and pattern recognition receptors, interleukins, kynurenine, and T cells has been studied in murine and ex vivo human studies, but data are lacking from patients with invasive fungal infections. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is considered an important component in host defense against Candida infections and is modulated by Candida-induced impairment of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Methods. Dectin-1, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4 expression; regulatory T cell (Treg) percentages; and interleukin 6, interleukin 10, IL-17A, interleukin 22, interleukin 23, interferon γ, kynurenine, and tryptophan levels were determined in candidemic patients and compared to levels in noncandidemic patients who are in the intensive care unit (ICU) and receiving antibiotic therapy and those in healthy controls, both with and without Candida colonization. Results. Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients, including Candida-colonized ICU patients and healthy controls. Within candidemic patients, time-dependent elevation of IL-17A and kynurenine levels was detected. IL-17A areas under the curve for differentiation between patients with early candidemia and those without candidemia (ICU patients, including Candida-colonized patients, and healthy controls) were between 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI],. 89-.99) and 0.99 (95% CI,. 99-1). Conclusions. Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients. The statistically significant association between IL-17A and kynurenine levels and candidemia suggests their potential as biomarkers for anticipation of invasive candidiasis. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00786903. © 2014 The Author. Source

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