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Canavero I.,National Neurologic Institute C Mondino Irccs | Cavallini A.,National Neurologic Institute C Mondino Irccs | Perrone P.,Legnano Hospital | Magoni M.,Spedali Civili Hospital | And 73 more authors.
BMC Neurology | Year: 2014

Background: Statins, due to their well-established pleiotropic effects, have noteworthy benefits in stroke prevention. Despite this, a significant proportion of high-risk patients still do not receive the recommended therapeutic regimens, and many others discontinue treatment after being started on them. The causes of non-adherence to current guidelines are multifactorial, and depend on both physicians and patients. The aim of this study is to identify the factors influencing statin prescription at Stroke Unit (SU) discharge.Methods: This study included 12,750 patients enrolled on the web-based Lombardia Stroke Registry (LRS) from July 2009 to April 2012 and discharged alive, with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and without contra-indication to statin therapy. By logistic regression analysis and classification trees, we evaluated the impact of demographic data, risk factors, tPA treatment, in-hospital procedures and complications on statin prescription rate at discharge.Results: We observed a slight increase in statins prescription during the study period (from 39.1 to 43.9%). Lower age, lower stroke severity and prestroke disability, the presence of atherothrombotic/lacunar risk factors, a diagnosis of non-cardioembolic stroke, tPA treatment, the absence of in-hospital complications, with the sole exception of hypertensive fits and hyperglycemia, were the patient-related predictors of adherence to guidelines by physicians. Overall, dyslipidemia appears as the leading factor, while TOAST classification does not reach statistical significance.Conclusions: In our region, Lombardia, adherence to guidelines in statin prescription at Stroke Unit discharge is very different from international goals. The presence of dyslipidemia remains the main factor influencing statin prescription, while the presence of well-defined atherosclerotic etiopathogenesis of stroke does not enhance statin prescription. Some uncertainties about the risk/benefit of statin therapy in stroke etiology subtypes (cardioembolism, other or undetermined causes) may partially justify the underuse of statin in ischemic stroke. The differences that exist between current international guidelines may prevent a more widespread use of statin and should be clarified in a consensus. © 2014 Canavero et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Marchioni E.,C Mondino National Institute Of Neurology Foundation | Ravaglia S.,University of Pavia | Ravaglia S.,Beato Matteo Clinical Institute | Montomoli C.,University of Pavia | And 16 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2013

Objectives: Postinfectious neurologic syndromes (PINSs) of the CNS include heterogeneous disorders, sometimes relapsing. In this study, we aimed to a) describe the spectrum of PINSs; b) define predictors of outcome in PINSs; and c) assess the clinical/paraclinical features that help differentiate PINSs from multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: In this prospective cohort study, adult inpatients with PINSs underwent extensive diagnostic assessment and therapeutic protocols at inclusion and during a minimum 2-year follow-up. We compared them with newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients with MS, also prospectively recruited. Results: The study sample comprised 176 patients with PINSs aged 59.9 ± 17.25 years (range: 1880 years) divided into 2 groups: group 1 (CNS syndromes, 64%) - encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, or myelitis; and group 2 (CNS + peripheral nervous system [PNS] syndromes, 36%) - encephalomyelor- adiculoneuritis or myeloradiculoneuritis. We observed the patients for 24 to 170 months (median 69 months). Relapses, almost invariably involving the spinal cord, occurred in 30.5%. PNS involvement was an independent risk factor for relapses (hazard ratio 2.8). The outcome was poor in 43% of patients; risk factors included older age, greater neurologic disability at onset, higher serum-CSF albumin percentage transfer, myelitis, and PNS involvement. Steroid resistance occurred in 30% of the patients, half of whom responded favorably to IV immunoglobulins. Compared with MS, PINSs were characterized by older age, lower tendency to relapse, and distinct CSF findings. Conclusions: The category of PINSs should be revised: most of the clinical variants have a poor prognosis and are not readily classifiable on the basis of current knowledge. PNS involvement has a critical role in relapses, which seem to affect the spine only. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.

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