Karakatsanis S.,Lymphomas and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit |
Bertsias G.,University of Crete |
Roussou P.,Hematology Unit |
Boumpas D.,Rheumatology Clinical Immunology Unit
Hematological Oncology | Year: 2014
Malignant T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are relatively rare. T cells are activated through the T-cell receptor with the aid of costimulating molecules that can be either excitatory or inhibitory. Such pathways have been also implicated in mechanisms of malignant T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases' persistence and relapse by circumventing immune responses. To date, three major immunoinhibitory molecules have been recognized, namely programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Although CTLA-4 is considered the 'gatekeeper' of immune tolerance, PD-1 negatively regulates immune responses broadly, whereas BTLA activation has been shown to inhibit CD8+ cancer-specific T cells. Both PD-1 and BTLA downregulate proximal T-cell receptor signalling cascade and are involved in immune evasion of leukaemias and lymphomas, even after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. These immunoregulatory molecules can have seemingly a synergistic effect on weakening the immune response of patients with haematological malignancies, and their manipulation represents a very active field of preclinical as well as clinical interest. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Repa A.,University of Crete |
Repa A.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology |
Bertsias G.K.,University of Crete |
Bertsias G.K.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology |
And 11 more authors.
Human Immunology | Year: 2015
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is caused by mutations in pyrin, a protein expressed in innate immune cells that interacts with caspase-1 and other inflammasome components to regulate interleukin (IL)-1β maturation. Since NLRP3 inflammasome represents major source of IL-1β, we studied its protein expression and function in FMF. We isolated peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) from 20 symptoms-free FMF patients and 21 healthy individuals. Intracellular protein expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β at baseline and after LPS/ATP sequential treatment for NLRP3 activation was assessed by immunoblotting. Secreted IL-1β was quantified by ELISA. THP-1 cells were transfected with wild-type or mutant pyrin and IL-1β secretion was measured. FMF WBCs exhibited lower NLRP3 and active caspase-1 protein expression compared to healthy individuals, and LPS/ATP treatment resulted in significantly lower intracellular IL-1β levels in FMF patients. Likewise, LPS/ATP induced caspase-1-dependent IL-1β release at significantly lower amounts in the FMF group (1182 ± 192 versus 2134 ± 245 pg/mL in controls, p= 0.004). Consistently, THP-1 cells transfected with FMF-associated M694V mutant pyrin displayed lower LPS/ATP-induced IL-1β compared with wild-type pyrin-transfected cells. FMF WBCs demonstrate reduced NLRP3-mediated IL-1β production. Additional studies are needed to define whether this finding represents a compensatory mechanism to control inflammation or is directly linked to disease pathogenesis. © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics.