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Mi S.,Clinical Immunobiology Correlative Studies Laboratory | Stinson S.,General Clinical Research Center | Kalos M.,University of Pennsylvania | Lacey S.F.,Clinical Immunobiology Correlative Studies Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2010

AIDS patients who develop lymphoma are often treated with transplanted hematopoietic progenitor cells. As a first step in developing a hematopoietic cell-based gene therapy treatment, four patients undergoing treatment with these transplanted cells were also given gene-modified peripheral blood-derived (CD34+) hematopoietic progenitor cells expressing three RNA-based anti-HIV moieties (tat/rev short hairpin RNA, TAR decoy, and CCR5 ribozyme). In vitro analysis of these gene-modified cells showed no differences in their hematopoietic potential compared with nontransduced cells. In vitro estimates of successful expression of the anti-HIV moieties were initially as high as 22% but declined to ∼1% over 4 weeks of culture. Ethical study design required that patients be transplanted with both gene-modified and unmanipulated hematopoietic progenitor cells obtained from the patient by apheresis. Transfected cells were successfully engrafted in all four infused patients by day 11, and there were no unexpected infusion-related toxicities. Persistent vector expression in multiple cell lineages was observed at low levels for up to 24 months, as was expression of the introduced small interfering RNA and ribozyme. Therefore, we have demonstrated stable vector expression in human blood cells after transplantation of autologous gene-modified hematopoietic progenitor cells. These results support the development of an RNA-based cell therapy platform for HIV.


PubMed | Medical Oncology, Beckman Research Institute, Cytogenetics, Clinical Immunobiology Correlative Studies Laboratory and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2016

Human neural stem cells (NSCs) are inherently tumor-tropic, making them attractive drug delivery vehicles. Toward this goal, we retrovirally transduced an immortalized, clonal NSC line to stably express cytosine deaminase (HB1.F3.CD.C21; CD-NSCs), which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).Recurrent high grade glioma patients underwent intracranial administration of CD-NSCs during tumor resection or biopsy. Four days later, patients began taking oral 5-FC every 6 hours for 7 days. Study treatment was given only once. A standard 3+3 dose escalation schema was used to increase doses of CD-NSCs from 10 million to 50 million and 5-FC from 75 to 150 mg/kg/day. Intracerebral microdialysis was performed to measure brain levels of 5-FC and 5-FU. Serial blood samples were obtained to assess systemic drug concentrations as well as to perform immunologic correlative studies.Fifteen patients underwent study treatment. We saw no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) due to the CD-NSCs. There was 1 DLT (grade 3 transaminitis) possibly related to 5-FC. We did not see development of anti-CD-NSC antibodies and did not detect CD-NSCs or replication competent retrovirus in the systemic circulation. Intracerebral microdialysis revealed that CD-NSCs produced 5-FU locally in the brain in a 5-FC dose-dependent manner. Autopsy data indicate that CD-NSCs migrated to distant tumor sites and were non-tumorigenic.Collectively, our results from this first-in-human study demonstrate initial safety and proof-of-concept regarding the ability of NSCs to target brain tumors and locally produce chemotherapy.


Portnow J.,City of Hope | Badie B.,City of Hope | Liu X.,City of Hope | Frankel P.,City of Hope | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2014

Intracerebral microdialysis enables continuous measurement of changes in brain biochemistry. In this study intracerebral microdialysis was used to assess changes in cytokine levels after tumor resection and in response to treatment with temsirolimus. Brain tumor patients undergoing craniotomy participated in this non-therapeutic study. A 100 kDa molecular weight cut-off microdialysis catheter was placed in peritumoral tissue at the time of resection. Cohort 1 underwent craniotomy only. Cohort 2 received a 200 mg dose of intravenous temsirolimus 48 h after surgery. Dialysate samples were collected continuously for 96 h and analyzed for the presence of 30 cytokines. Serial blood samples were collected to measure systemic cytokine levels. Dialysate samples were obtained from six patients in cohort 1 and 4 in cohort 2. Seventeen cytokines could be recovered in dialysate samples from at least 8 of 10 patients. Concentrations of interleukins and chemokines were markedly elevated in peritumoral tissue, and most declined over time, with IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP1β, IL-6, IL-12p40/p70, MIP1α, IFN-α, G-CSF, IL-2R, and vascular endothelial growth factor significantly (p < 0.05) decreasing over 96 h following surgery. No qualitative changes in intracerebral or serum cytokine concentrations were detected after temsirolimus administration. This is the first intracerebral microdialysis study to evaluate the time course of changes in macromolecule levels in the peritumoral microenvironment after a debulking craniotomy. Initial elevations of peritumoral interleukins and chemokines most likely reflected an inflammatory response to both tumor and surgical trauma. These findings have implications for development of cellular therapies that are administered intracranially at the time of surgery. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


Cao L.-F.,Clinical Immunobiology Correlative Studies Laboratory | Krymskaya L.,Clinical Immunobiology Correlative Studies Laboratory | Tran V.,Clinical Immunobiology Correlative Studies Laboratory | Mi S.,Clinical Immunobiology Correlative Studies Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Cytometry Part A | Year: 2010

Although target cell cytolysis has been widely employed to describe effector function of cells, cytolysis assays as commonly employed do not generate quantitative data. In this report we describe the development and application of a statistically supported flow cytometry-based assay to quantify cell-mediated cytolysis. The assay depends on the use of the fluorescent dye CFSE to distinguish target from effector cells, the DNA intercalating dye 7AAD to distinguish dead from live cell events, and on the establishment of a cytolysis curve that allows for the derivation of statistically robust data. We demonstrate that the cytolysis curve is well described by a four parameter logistic regression model provided that (i) the range of effector to target (E:T) ratios studied allows for full description of the logistic curve, and (ii) an adequate number of data points are collected to estimate the model parameters. We show that the assay is highly reproducible and accurate, and comparable in sensitivity with the standard 51Cr assay. We report on the potential for this assay to generate quantitative data on the cytolytic activity of both CD8 T and NK cells; describe a relationship between the efficiency of effector cell degranulation and target cell cytolysis throughout a range of E:T ratios, and demonstrate the potential to multiplex with other platforms to obtain broader datasets for the effector phenotype of cells. Appropriate use of this assay will enhance the ability to derive quantitative and integrated correlative datasets from basic, translational, and clinical studies. © 2010 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


PubMed | Clinical Immunobiology Correlative Studies Laboratory
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology | Year: 2010

Although target cell cytolysis has been widely employed to describe effector function of cells, cytolysis assays as commonly employed do not generate quantitative data. In this report we describe the development and application of a statistically supported flow cytometry-based assay to quantify cell-mediated cytolysis. The assay depends on the use of the fluorescent dye CFSE to distinguish target from effector cells, the DNA intercalating dye 7AAD to distinguish dead from live cell events, and on the establishment of a cytolysis curve that allows for the derivation of statistically robust data. We demonstrate that the cytolysis curve is well described by a four parameter logistic regression model provided that (i) the range of effector to target (E:T) ratios studied allows for full description of the logistic curve, and (ii) an adequate number of data points are collected to estimate the model parameters. We show that the assay is highly reproducible and accurate, and comparable in sensitivity with the standard (51)Cr assay. We report on the potential for this assay to generate quantitative data on the cytolytic activity of both CD8 T and NK cells; describe a relationship between the efficiency of effector cell degranulation and target cell cytolysis throughout a range of E:T ratios, and demonstrate the potential to multiplex with other platforms to obtain broader datasets for the effector phenotype of cells. Appropriate use of this assay will enhance the ability to derive quantitative and integrated correlative datasets from basic, translational, and clinical studies.

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