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Gillanders D.T.,University of Edinburgh | Sinclair A.K.,Clinical Health Psychology | MacLean M.,NHS Grampian | Jardine K.,NHS Grampian
Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science | Year: 2015

Objective: This study explored the predictive power of illness cognitions, cognitive fusion, avoidance and self-compassion in influencing distress and quality of life in people who have experienced cancer. Method: A quantitative cross-sectional design was used. 105 adults with various cancer diagnoses completed measures of cancer related thoughts, coping styles, self-compassion, cognitive fusion, distress and quality of life. Correlation, linear regression and conditional process analysis was used to explore relationships between predictor variables, distress and quality of life. Results: Although predictors were individually related to distress and quality of life in theoretically consistent ways, regression analysis showed that cognitive fusion was the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms, whilst cancer related cognitions and avoidant coping were the strongest predictors of depressive symptoms and quality of life. Threatening illness appraisals did not directly predict anxiety, rather cognitive fusion mediated this relationship. This path was also moderated by self-compassion, such that for those higher in self-compassion, the impact of threatening illness appraisals and fusion on anxiety was attenuated. Illness appraisals did not directly predict depressive symptoms, but their influence on depression was mediated by avoidant coping. For quality of life, both direct and indirect effects were observed. Illness cognitions, avoidance and fusion all directly influenced quality of life and this was not moderated by self-compassion. Conclusions: Threatening appraisals of cancer, cognitive fusion and avoidant coping were found to be the strongest predictors of distress and lowered quality of life after cancer. Interventions focused on reducing cognitive fusion and emotional avoidance, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy should be further explored in this population. Threatening illness cognitions directly influence both anxiety and quality of life. Conceptualisations of cognitive modification strategies from within contextual behavioural science could be useful in exploiting this potential treatment target, whilst staying theoretically consistent. © 2015. Source


Loftus R.,University of Manitoba | Nugent Z.,University of Manitoba | Graff L.A.,Clinical Health Psychology | Schumacher F.,University of Manitoba | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

objective: Patient experiences with endoscopy visits within a large central Canadian health region were evaluated to determine the relationship between the visit experience and the patients' willingness to return for future endoscopy, and to identify the factors associated with patients' willingness to return. Methods: A self-report survey was distributed to 1200 consecutive individuals undergoing an upper and/or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy at any one of the six hospital-based endoscopy facilities in the region. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the association between the patients' overall rating of the visits and willingness to return for repeat procedures under similar medical circumstances. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with willingness to return for repeat endoscopy and overall satisfaction (rating) of the visit. Results: A total of 529 (44%) individuals returned the questionnaire, with 45% rating the visit as excellent and 56% indicating they were extremely likely to return for repeat endoscopy. There was a low moderate correlation between overall rating of the visit and patients' willingness to return for repeat endoscopy (r=0.30). The factors independently associated with patient willingness to return for repeat endoscopy included perceived technical skills of the endoscopists (OR 2.7 [95% CI 1.3 to 5.5]), absence of pain during the procedure (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.3 to 3.6]) and history of previous endoscopy (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.4 to 4.1]). In contrast, the independent factors associated with the overall rating of the visit included information provided pre- and postprocedure, wait time before and on the day of the visit, and the physical environment. Conclusions: To facilitate patient return for needed endoscopy, it is important to assess patients' willingness to return because positive behavioural intent is not simply a function of satisfaction with the visit. © 2013 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Tyrer P.,Imperial College London | Cooper S.,Imperial College London | Crawford M.,Imperial College London | Dupont S.,Greenacres Center | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research | Year: 2011

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of significant health anxiety (hypochondriasis) in patients aged 16-75 in cardiology, respiratory medicine, neurological, endocrine and gastrointestinal clinics in general hospitals in London, Middlesex and North Nottinghamshire. Method: The Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI) (short form) was administered to patients attending the five clinics over a 21. month period and all those who scored 20 or more invited to take part in a further assessment for a randomised controlled trial. Results: Of 43,205 patients attending the clinics 28,991 (67.1%) were assessed and of these, after exclusion of ineligible patients 5747 (19.8%) had significant health anxiety. 444 subsequently agreed to take part in a randomised controlled trial of treatment. The prevalence levels varied by clinic with neurology (24.7%) having the highest prevalence followed by respiratory medicine (20.9%), gastroenterology (19.5%), cardiology (19.1%), and endocrinology (17.5%). Conclusion: Abnormal health anxiety is common and a significant problem in those attending medical clinics and deserves greater awareness. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.. Source


Hall J.R.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Harvey M.,Clinical Health Psychology | Vo H.T.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | O'Bryant S.E.,The Texas Institute | O'Bryant S.E.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition | Year: 2011

Measures of verbal fluency are widely used in the assessment of cognitive functioning of the elderly. However, limited research has evaluated patterns (across specific timed intervals) of performance on tasks of language fluency in different forms of dementia. The current study investigated semantic fluency in 488 elderly individuals (249 with Alzheimer's dementia, 97 Vascular dementia, 97 Mild Cognitive Impairment and 45 cognitively intact) across 15-second intervals in an animal naming task using retrospective chart review. Normal controls produced significantly more exemplars and AD patients produced fewer animal names than the other groups. After the first 15-second time interval, the demented groups produced significantly fewer exemplars than the non-demented. At the end of 30 seconds it was possible to differentiate normal aging from MCI who no longer differed from the VaD group. Overall, it appears that the greatest and most clinically meaningful differences between the diagnostic groups were detected in the first three 15-second intervals. The present findings support the use of time intervals and total scores on tasks of verbal fluency in clinical settings and for research purposes. © 2011 Psychology Press. Source


Hobson V.L.,Texas Tech University | Hall J.R.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Harvey M.,Clinical Health Psychology | Cullum C.M.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Objective: Multiple versions of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) exist, which makes comparison of findings from different studies difficult. The current project sought to determine if estimated 60-item BNT scores could be reliably calculated from 30- and 15-item administrations with patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Estimated 60-item scores were created for 30-item (even and odd) and 15-item Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) versions of the BNT from a database containing item-level responses for all BNT items. Correlations were conducted between all three estimated 60-item scores and full 60-item version scores administered to all participants in the sample. Results: The estimated versions were all highly correlated with the standard 60-item version of the BNT across the sample and these findings held when the sample was separated out by case (AD) and control status. Mean difference scores were very small for scores estimated from 30-item administrations; however, difference scores for the 15-item CERAD were much larger. Conclusions: Estimated 60-item versions of the BNT can be created from 30-item BNT administrations, which will enable comparisons across studies and allow integration of data from various AD research groups for increased power in analytic protocols. Creation of an estimated score from the 15-item CERAD version is not warranted. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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