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Di Giuseppe D.,Karolinska Institutet | Wallin A.,Karolinska Institutet | Bottai M.,Karolinska Institutet | Askling J.,Clinical Epidemiology Unit | Wolk A.,Karolinska Institutet
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Objectives: To analyse the association between dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in middle-aged and older women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based prospective study. Methods: Data on diet were collected in 1987 and 1997 via a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The risk of RA associated with dietary long-chain n-3 PUFAs and fish intake was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for age, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, use of aspirin and energy intake. Results: Among 32 232 women born 1914-1948, 205 RA cases were identified during a mean follow-up of 7.5 years (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010; 2 41 120 person-years). An intake of dietary long-chain n-3 PUFAs (FFQ1997) of more than 0.21 g/day (lowest quintile) was associated with a 35% decreased risk of developing RA (multivariable adjusted relative risk (RR) 0.65; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.90) compared with a lower intake. Long-term intake consistently higher than 0.21 g/day (according to both FFQ1987 and FFQ1997) was associated with a 52% (95% CI 29% to 67%) decreased risk. Consistent long-term consumption (FFQ1987 and FFQ1997) of fish ≥1 serving per week compared with<1 was associated with a 29% decrease in risk (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.04). Conclusions: This prospective study of women supports the hypothesis that dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFAs may play a role in aetiology of RA. © 2013 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism. Source

Yong T.Y.,Flinders University | Ben-Tovim D.,Clinical Epidemiology Unit | Thompson C.H.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice | Year: 2013

Rationale, aims and objectives To determine the relation of the readmission rate of general medical patients to either the existence of a discharge summary or the timeliness of its dispatch. Methods This was a retrospective study on discharge summaries of all discharges from the general medical service at a tertiary referral teaching hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The main outcome measures were readmission rate to hospital within 7 or 28 days of discharge Results A total of 16 496 patient admissions were included in the analysis. Of these discharges, 3397 (20.6%) patients did not have a summary completed within a week of discharge. There were significant linear trends between patients' readmission rates within 7 (P < 0.001) or 28 days (P < 0.001) and categories reflecting the delay in dispatch of their discharge summaries. The absence of a discharge summary was associated with a 79% increase in the rate of readmission within 7 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 42 to 124% increase; P < 0.001] and a 37% increased rate of readmission within 28 days (95% CI 17 to 61% increase; P < 0.001). If aged less than 80 years, the absence of a discharge summary was associated with a 127% increase in readmission rate within 7 days (95% CI 72 to 202% increase; P < 0.001) and a 55% increase within 28 days (95% CI 25 to 91% increase; P < 0.001) after discharge. Conclusions Delayed transmission or absence of a discharge summary is associated with readmission of the patient; more so in patients less than 80 years old. If no summary is generated by 7 days after discharge, the rate of readmission within 7 or 28 days after discharge is indistinguishable from no summary being written at all. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Noordzij P.G.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Poldermans D.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Schouten O.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Bax J.J.,Leiden University | And 2 more authors.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Few data are available that systematically describe rates and trends of postoperative mortality for fairly large, unselected patient populations. METHODS: This population-based study uses a registry of 3.7 million surgical procedures in 102 hospitals in The Netherlands during 1991-2005. Patients older than 20 yr who underwent an elective, nonday case, open surgical procedure were enrolled. Patient data included main (discharge) diagnosis, secondary diagnoses, dates of admission and discharge, death during admission, operations, age, sex, and a limited number of comorbidities classified according to the International Classification of Diseases 9th revision Clinical Modification. The main outcome measure was postoperative all-cause mortality. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the relationship between type of surgery and the main outcome. RESULTS: Postoperative all-cause death was observed in 67,879 patients (1.85%). In a model based on a classification into 11 main surgical categories, breast surgery was associated with lowest mortality (adjusted incidence, 0.07%), and vascular surgery was associated with highest mortality (adjusted incidence, 5.97%). In a model based on 36 surgical subcategories, the adjusted mortality ranged from 0.07% for hernia nuclei pulposus surgery to 18.5% for liver transplant. The c-index of the 36-category model was 0.88, which was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than the c-index that was associated with the simple surgical classification (low vs. high risk) in the commonly used Revised Cardiac Risk Index (c-index, 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study provided a detailed and contemporary overview of postoperative mortality for the entire surgical spectrum, which may act as reference standard for surgical outcome in Western populations. Copyright © 2010, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Fortes C.,Clinical Epidemiology Unit
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2010

Although the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains to be fully elucidated, it is now apparent that multiple genetic and environmental factors are at play. Because lupus has a strong female preponderance, several studies have examined the role of female hormones in disease etiology. Yet this knowledge has not helped to explain lupus etiology or to prevent it. Estrogens exist not only as natural or drug compounds, but also as environmental chemical contaminant and women are highly exposed to all of them. Estrogenic activity has been found in a number of pesticides including pyrethroids that are largely used in the household. Although there is only a small amount of published data examining a possible causal relationship between lupus and pesticides it can be hypothesized that pesticides, in particular insecticides, through their estrogenic activity and capacity to induce oxidative stress provoke autoimmune reaction influencing lupus development. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Brambilla P.,ASL Milan 2 | Bedogni G.,Clinical Epidemiology Unit | Heo M.,Yeshiva University | Pietrobelli A.,University of Verona | Pietrobelli A.,Pennington Biomedical Research Center
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2013

Objective: Body mass index (BMI) is the surrogate measure of adiposity most commonly employed in children and adults. Waist circumference (WC) and the waist circumference-to-height ratio (WCHt) have been proposed as markers of adiposity-related morbidity in children. However, no study to date has compared WCHt, WC, BMI and skinfolds thickness for their ability to detect body adiposity.Aim:To compare WCHt, WC, BMI and skinfolds for their accuracy in predicting percent body fat (PBF), percent trunk fat (PTF) and fat mass index (FMI) in a large sample of children and adolescents.Design, setting and participants: We studied 2339 children and adolescents aged 8-18 years from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003/2004. Body fat was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable regression splines were used to model the association between PBF, PTF, FMI and the predictors of interest. Results: WCHt alone explained 64% of PBF variance as compared with 31% for WC, 32% for BMI and 72% for the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (SF2) (P<0.001 for all). When age and gender were added to the predictors, the explained variance increased to 80% for the WCHt model, 72% for the WC model, 68% for the BMI model and 84% for the SF2 model. There was no practical advantage to add the ethnic group as further predictor. Similar relationships were observed with PTF and FMI. Conclusions: WCHt is better than WC and BMI at predicting adiposity in children and adolescents. It can be a useful surrogate of body adiposity when skinfold measurements are not available. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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