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PubMed | University of Milan, Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory and Quality Unit
Type: | Journal: Journal of evaluation in clinical practice | Year: 2017

The increasing number of diagnostic tests requests all over the world is a problem that can partially be explained by inappropriate testing. Impact on the total costs of health systems becomes relevant when tests are performed in a large amount. In this paper, retesting of total cholesterol, ferritin, vitamin BThe Quality Unit of Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano (Fondazione) decided to perform a first assessment of the appropriate use of the laboratory tests cholesterol, ferritin, vitamin BWe examined 466035 requests for 113019 patients. Proportions of tests judged potentially inappropriate varied between 8.1% for 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D and 37.1% for total cholesterol. The rates of inappropriate tests from year to year never showed significant decrease, and the maximum increase corresponded to an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI, 1.36-2.51) for 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D from 2012 to 2013. Calculated loss of money was approximately 500000 in the 3years.Inappropriate requests represent a waste of time and money resources. Our analysis highlighted economically unacceptable rates of inappropriate retesting, with no evidence of decreasing trend. Actions to raise awareness in clinicians or automated electronic solutions are necessary to limit unnecessary test repetitions.


Colombo F.,Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory | Trombetta E.,Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory | Cetrangolo P.,Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory | Maggioni M.,Clinical Pathology Laboratories | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Despite continuous improvements in therapeutic protocols, cancer-related mortality is still one of the main problems facing public health. The main cause of treatment failure is multi-drug resistance (MDR: simultaneous insensitivity to different anticancer agents), the underlying molecular and biological mechanisms of which include the activity of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins and drug compartmentalisation in cell organelles. We investigated the expression of the main ABC proteins and the role of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the MDR of six hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, and confirmed the accumulation of the yellow anticancer drug sunitinib in giant (four lines) and small cytoplasmic vacuoles of lysosomal origin (two lines). ABC expression analyses showed that the main ABC protein harboured by all of the cell lines was PGP, whose expression was not limited to the cell membrane but was also found on lysosomes. MTT assays showed that the cell lines with giant lysosomes were more resistant to sorafenib treatment than those with small lysosomes (p<0.01), and that verapamil incubation can revert this resistance, especially if it is administered after drug pre-incubation. The findings of this study demonstrate the involvement of PGP-positive lysosomes in drug sequestration and MDR in HCC cell lines. The possibility of modulating this mechanism using PGP inhibitors could lead to the development of new targeted strategies to enhance HCC treatment.


PubMed | Clinical Pathology Laboratories, Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, Ospedale A. Manzoni and University of Milan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Despite continuous improvements in therapeutic protocols, cancer-related mortality is still one of the main problems facing public health. The main cause of treatment failure is multi-drug resistance (MDR: simultaneous insensitivity to different anti-cancer agents), the underlying molecular and biological mechanisms of which include the activity of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins and drug compartmentalisation in cell organelles. We investigated the expression of the main ABC proteins and the role of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the MDR of six hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, and confirmed the accumulation of the yellow anti-cancer drug sunitinib in giant (four lines) and small cytoplasmic vacuoles of lysosomal origin (two lines). ABC expression analyses showed that the main ABC protein harboured by all of the cell lines was PGP, whose expression was not limited to the cell membrane but was also found on lysosomes. MTT assays showed that the cell lines with giant lysosomes were more resistant to sorafenib treatment than those with small lysosomes (p<0.01), and that verapamil incubation can revert this resistance, especially if it is administered after drug pre-incubation. The findings of this study demonstrate the involvement of PGP-positive lysosomes in drug sequestration and MDR in HCC cell lines. The possibility of modulating this mechanism using PGP inhibitors could lead to the development of new targeted strategies to enhance HCC treatment.


Ogliari G.,Leiden University | Ogliari G.,University of Milan | Westendorp R.G.J.,Leiden University | Westendorp R.G.J.,Copenhagen University | And 9 more authors.
Age and Ageing | Year: 2015

Background: optimal blood pressure targets in older adults are controversial.Objective: to investigate whether the relation of blood pressure with mortality in older adults varies by age, functional and cognitive status.Design: longitudinal geriatric outpatient cohort.Setting: Milan Geriatrics 75+ Cohort Study.Subjects: one thousand five hundred and eighty-seven outpatients aged 75 years and over.Methods: the relations of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with mortality risk were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were assessed at baseline. All analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic factors, co-morbidities and medications.Results: one thousand and forty-six patients died during 10-year follow-up. The relationships of SBP and DBP with mortality risk were U-shaped; SBP of 165 mmHg and DBP of 85 mmHg were associated with the lowest mortality. Patients with SBP < 120 mmHg and patients with SBP 120-139 mmHg had 1.64-fold (95% confidence intervals, CI 1.21-2.23) and 1.32-fold (95% CI 1.10-1.60) higher mortality risk than patients with SBP 160-179 mmHg (P values 0.001 and 0.004, respectively). In patients with SBP below 180 mmHg, higher SBP was associated with lower mortality in patients with impaired ADL and MMSE but not in those with preserved ADL and/or MMSE (P for interaction 0.033). Age did not modify the correlation of SBP with mortality.Conclusions: the correlations of SBP and DBP with mortality were U-shaped. Higher SBP is related to lower mortality in subjects with impaired ADL and MMSE. ADL and MMSE may identify older subjects who benefit from higher blood pressure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.


Torretta S.,University of Milan | Marchisio P.,University of Milan | Colombo M.R.,Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory | Rosazza C.,University of Milan | Pignataro L.,University of Milan
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

The purpose of this investigation was to describe the first application of nasopharyngeal cytology (NPC), a new cytological technique to collect cellular material from the nasopharyngeal surface non-invasively in children with chronic adenoiditis associated with recurrent acute otitis media and/or otitis media with effusion. Cellular material was collected transorally using an extra-thin flexible wire nasopharyngeal swab and then examined under a light microscope. The diagnostic accuracy of NPC in detecting the presence of allergy and pathogens (compared to microbiological evaluation of nasopharyngeal aspirates, NPAs) was assessed. NPC was performed on 121 children (mean age 69.4 ± 15.5 months). Inflammatory cells and pathogens were detected in 61.1 % and 44.2 % of patients, respectively. The specificity of nasopharyngeal eosinophils in detecting allergy was good (91.9 %), as was the specificity of mast cells, but the sensitivities were less. The NPAs revealed bacterial colonisation in 84.7 % of the patients, and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated (60.0 %). NPC revealed the presence of bacteria in 94.9 % of patients, including bacillary species in 33.9 %. NPC was highly sensitive in detecting pathogens (96.0 %). Its specificity in detecting bacillary species was fairly good (75.0 %), but the corresponding values of the specificity of NPC in detecting pathogens and its sensitivity in detecting bacillary species were poor. Our findings suggest the need for more structured studies that can test the real effectiveness and usefulness of NPC in defining nasopharyngeal cytological patterns in children with chronic nasopharyngeal diseases by comparing it with established diagnostic techniques. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Leiden University, Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, Copenhagen University, Geriatric Unit and University of Milan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Age and ageing | Year: 2015

Optimal blood pressure targets in older adults are controversial.to investigate whether the relation of blood pressure with mortality in older adults varies by age, functional and cognitive status.longitudinal geriatric outpatient cohort.Milan Geriatrics 75+ Cohort Study.One thousand five hundred and eighty-seven outpatients aged 75 years and over.The relations of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with mortality risk were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were assessed at baseline. All analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic factors, co-morbidities and medications.One thousand and forty-six patients died during 10-year follow-up. The relationships of SBP and DBP with mortality risk were U-shaped; SBP of 165 mmHg and DBP of 85 mmHg were associated with the lowest mortality. Patients with SBP < 120 mmHg and patients with SBP 120-139 mmHg had 1.64-fold (95% confidence intervals, CI 1.21-2.23) and 1.32-fold (95% CI 1.10-1.60) higher mortality risk than patients with SBP 160-179 mmHg (P values 0.001 and 0.004, respectively). In patients with SBP below 180 mmHg, higher SBP was associated with lower mortality in patients with impaired ADL and MMSE but not in those with preserved ADL and/or MMSE (P for interaction 0.033). Age did not modify the correlation of SBP with mortality.The correlations of SBP and DBP with mortality were U-shaped. Higher SBP is related to lower mortality in subjects with impaired ADL and MMSE. ADL and MMSE may identify older subjects who benefit from higher blood pressure.


PubMed | Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory and University of Milan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2016

The purpose of this investigation was to describe the first application of nasopharyngeal cytology (NPC), a new cytological technique to collect cellular material from the nasopharyngeal surface non-invasively in children with chronic adenoiditis associated with recurrent acute otitis media and/or otitis media with effusion. Cellular material was collected transorally using an extra-thin flexible wire nasopharyngeal swab and then examined under a light microscope. The diagnostic accuracy of NPC in detecting the presence of allergy and pathogens (compared to microbiological evaluation of nasopharyngeal aspirates, NPAs) was assessed. NPC was performed on 121 children (mean age 69.415.5months). Inflammatory cells and pathogens were detected in 61.1% and 44.2% of patients, respectively. The specificity of nasopharyngeal eosinophils in detecting allergy was good (91.9%), as was the specificity of mast cells, but the sensitivities were less. The NPAs revealed bacterial colonisation in 84.7% of the patients, and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated (60.0%). NPC revealed the presence of bacteria in 94.9% of patients, including bacillary species in 33.9%. NPC was highly sensitive in detecting pathogens (96.0%). Its specificity in detecting bacillary species was fairly good (75.0%), but the corresponding values of the specificity of NPC in detecting pathogens and its sensitivity in detecting bacillary species were poor. Our findings suggest the need for more structured studies that can test the real effectiveness and usefulness of NPC in defining nasopharyngeal cytological patterns in children with chronic nasopharyngeal diseases by comparing it with established diagnostic techniques.

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