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Ljubisavljevic S.,Clinical Center Nis | Ljubisavljevic S.,University of Niš
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2016

Despite a large amount of research which aims at defining the pathophysiology of human demyelination (i.e., multiple sclerosis), etiological bases of disease have been unknown so far. The point of intersection of all assumed etiological factors, which are mainly based upon immunological cascades, is neuroinflammation. The precise definition of the place and role of all pathogenetic factors in the occurrence and development of the disease is of crucial importance for understanding the clinical nature and for finding more effective therapeutic options. There are few studies whose results give more precise data about the role and the importance of other factors in neuroinflammation, besides immunological ones, with regard to clinical and paraclinical correlates of the disease. The review integrates results found in previously performed studies which have evaluated oxidative stress participation in early and late neuroinflammation. The largest number of studies indicates that the use of antioxidants affects the change of neuroinflammation course under experimental conditions, which is reflected in the reduction of the severity and the total reversibility in clinical presentation of the disease, the faster achieving of remission, and the delayed and slow course of neuroinflammation. Therapies based on the knowledge of redox biology targeting free radical generation hold great promise in modulation of the neuroinflammation and its clinical presentations. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Stojanov D.A.,University of Niš | Stojanov D.A.,Center for Radiology | Aracki-Trenkic A.,Center for Radiology | Vojinovic S.,University of Niš | And 4 more authors.
European Radiology | Year: 2016

Objective: To evaluate correlation between cumulative dose of gadobutrol and signal intensity (SI) within dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted images in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: Dentate nucleus-to-pons and globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratios, and renal and liver functions, were evaluated after multiple intravenous administrations of 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol at 27, 96–98, and 168 weeks. We compared SI ratios based on the number of administrations, total amount of gadobutrol administered, and time between injections. Results: Globus pallidus-to-thalamus (p = 0.025) and dentate nucleus-to-pons (p < 0.001) SI ratios increased after multiple gadobutrol administrations, correlated with the number of administrations (ρ = 0.263, p = 0.046, respectively) and depended on the length of administration (p = 0.017, p = 0.037, respectively). Patients receiving gadobutrol at 27 weeks showed the greatest increase in both SI ratios (p = 0.006; p = 0.014, respectively, versus 96–98 weeks). GGT increased at the end of the study (p = 0.004). Conclusion: In patients with RRMS, SI within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus increased on unenhanced T1-weighted images after multiple gadobutrol injections. Administration of the same total amount of gadobutrol over a shorter period caused greater SI increase. Key points: • Gadolinium deposition may occur within the human brain after multiple gadolinium contrast administrations • Increasing T1W signal intensity occurs within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus • Increasing signal intensity may be a consequence of multiple administrations of gadobutrol • Administration of gadobutrol over a shorter period causes greater signal intensity increase © 2015, European Society of Radiology.

Stojanovic O.I.,Institute of Rehabilitation | Lazovic M.,Institute of Rehabilitation | Lazovic M.,Clinical Center Nis | Vuceljic M.,Biochemical Laboratory ALLABO
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2011

The latest data support the correlation of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis, indicating the parallel progression of two tissue destruction processes with increased fatal and non-fatal coronary events, as well as higher fracture risk. Vitamin D inadequacy associated with low bone mineral density increases fall and fracture risk, leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, calcifies coronary arteries and significantly increases cardiovascular disease. Randomized clinical trial evidence related to extraskeletal vitamin D outcomes was limited and generally uninformative. A recent recommendation on vitamin D dietary requirements for bone health is 600 IU/d for ages 1-70 years and 800 IU/d for 71 years and older, corresponding to a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l). Further large randomized controlled trials are needed to reassess laboratory ranges for 25-hydroxyvitamin D in both diseases, in order to avoid under- and over-treatment problems, and completely clarify the relationship between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2011 Termedia & Banach.

Ljubisavljevic S.,Clinical Center Nis | Ljubisavljevic S.,University of Niš | Stojanovic I.,University of Niš | Pavlovic R.,University of Niš | Pavlovic D.,University of Niš
Neurotoxicity Research | Year: 2014

To investigate the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) products (NOx) and arginase activity in acute neuroinflammation, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, who were divided into groups on the basis of clinical and radiological disease activity. The NOx levels, in both, CSF and plasma, were increased in CIS (p = 0.0015, p = 0.0014, respectively) and RRMS group (p = 0.002, p = 0.0019, respectively), while arginase activity approached low levels, in CIS (p = 0.009, p = 0.02, respectively) and RRMS group (p = 0.018, p = 0.034, respectively) compared to controls. The NOx levels were higher in CSF and plasma of CIS than in RRMS group (p = 0.065, p = 0.037, respectively), inverse to arginase activity which was higher, in CSF and plasma, in RRMS than in CIS group (p = 0.031, p = 0.02, respectively). The CSF and plasma NOx values positively correlated with the clinical disease activity in CIS (r = 0.09, p = 0.81; r = 0.45, p = 0.023, respectively) and RRMS group (r = 0.311, p = 0.04; r = 0.512, p = 0.01, respectively). Also, CSF and plasma arginase activity showed negative correlation with clinical disease activity in CIS (r = 0.39, p = 0.03; r = 0.1, p = 0.65, respectively) and RRMS group (r = 0.43, p = 0.03; r = 0.62, p = 0.015, respectively). The CSF NOx levels showed positive correlation with volume of acute radiological lesions of CNS in CIS (r = 0.25, p = 0.045) and RRMS group (r = 0.31, p = 0.04), while arginase activity showed the negative correlations in CIS (r = 0.41; p = 0.035) and RRMS group (r = 0.52, p = 0.022). The results support NO and arginase involvement in the pathogenesis of acute neuroinflammation, which determination may be useful as surrogate markers for clinical and radiological disease activity. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Petkovic I.,Clinical Center Nis
Wspolczesna Onkologia | Year: 2015

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma has been recognised as a distinct entity with unique clinical, pathologic, and genetic features. According to WHO 2008 classification it is marked as a variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but shares characteristics with classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Genetic analysis has shown that amplification of the 9p24.1 region is the disease's specific structural alteration. Aggressive behaviour and a tendency to invade surrounding tissues of the thoracic cavity, often causing superior vena cava syndrome, or pleural or pericardial effusions, are the clinical hallmarks of this disease. For a long period of time it has been considered as a disease with poor prognosis, which responds poorly to the conventional treatment created for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. An elective treatment has not yet been established, but recently the situation has became much more favourable. After the introduction of rituximab the cure rates have risen to over 80%, and the most recent results have demonstrated a new insight with dose-adjusted intensified continuous treatments, in which the cure rates have exceeded 90%. Current trends have led to the introduction of dose-adjusted intensified protocols becoming a standard of care, whereas the use of radiotherapy remains controversial because of the questionable predictive value of post-treatment PET/CT validity. The relapse rate is very low after two years of sustained complete remission. If the disease relapses or is resistant the outcome is very poor regardless of the applied treatment modality.

Background/Aim. Working alliance, as a collaborative part of the therapeutic relationship has been proven to be one of the most powerful therapeutic factors in psychotherapy in general, regardless many technical differences between numerous psychotherapeutic modalities. On the other hand, transference is the basic concept of psychodynamic psychotherapy, and, according to the psychoanalytic theory and practice, it forms a major part of the therapeutic relationship. The aim of our paper was to determine the differences between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance scores and the dropout group in transference patterns, sociodemographic and clinical parameters, during the early phase of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Methods. Our sample consisted of 61 non-psychotic patients, randomly selected by the method of consecutive admissions and treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the outpatient clinical setting. The patients were prospectively followed during 5 initial sessions of the therapeutic process. The working alliance inventory and Core conflictual relationship theme method were used for the estimation of working alliance and transference patterns, respectively. According to the Working Alliance Inventory scores, four groups of patients were formed and than compared. Results. Our results show a significant difference between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance inventory scores and the dropout group on the variable - transference patterns in the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Disharmonious transference patterns are more frequent in patients who form poor quality working alliance in the early phase of psychotherapy, or early dropout psychotherapy. It is of great importance to recognize transference patterns of a patient at the beginning of the psychotherapeutic process, because of their potentially harmful influence on the quality of working alliance.

Paunovic K.,Clinical center Nis
Medicinski arhiv | Year: 2012

Assessment of liver fibrosis is important for making treatment decisions, as well as for predicting prognosis and therapeutic outcome in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) treatment and infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in standard laboratory tests (AST, ALT, yGT, cholesterol and platelet count) and indirect serum fibrosis markers: AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), FIB-4 and Forns index, in chronically HCV-infected patients on maintenance HD with and without antiviral treatment. A total of 38 patients on chronic HD program more than 3 months and with chronic hepatitis C, were included in the study. According to local legislature 14 patients receive antiviral therapy (24 or 48 weeks, according to HCV genotype) adjusted for patients on HD: eight of them achieved sustained virological response (SVR) and six did not. All treated patients were HCV genotype 1. Baseline blood samples for standard laboratory tests and indirect serum fibrosis markers were collected on the day of antiviral treatment initiation, as well as at the end of follow-up treatment, 36 month later. At the beginning of antiviral treatment there were no significant differences in APRI, FIB-4, Forns and its components between patients who will achieve SVR and those who did not. A significant decrease of AST, ALT, yGT and APRI, and moderate decrease FIB-4 and Forns index was found at the end of follow-up in patients with SVR. In non-sustained responders group those three indexes and its components remained unchanged. Using cut-of values for APRI and FIB-4 (APRI < 0.5 and FIB-4 < 1.45) it was registered that raised percentage of patients with "no fibrosis" at the end of follow-up in those who achieved SVR. Absence of fibrosis measured by Forns index remained unchanged in all groups of patients. Simple indexes as APRI and FIB-4, successfully decrease after antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients. These parameters seems to be useful in monitoring for liver fibrosis rate after antiviral treatment in patients on maintenance HD infected by HCV and can be used for estimation liver fibrosis progression in candidates for cadaveric renal transplantation.

Samardzic L.,Clinical Center Nis
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis | Year: 2013

The influence of social changes in transitional country and transitional times, among other things, have made changes in the structure of the patients seeking psychotherapeutic treatment. However, there has not been any research studying characteristics of patients in psychotherapeutic treatment. The aim of our study was to establish socio-demographic, clinical and psychodynamic characteristics of patients psychotherapeutically treated in the outpatient clinical setting. Our sample consisted of 61 non-psychotic patients, randomly selected by the method of consecutive admissions and treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the outpatient clinical setting. The study was conducted from January 2009 to January 2012 at the Mental Health Clinic, Clinical Center Niš. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and a Semi-structured interview for the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis were used for collecting data. Our results have shown that patients treated with psychotherapy in the outpatient clinical setting have specific socio-demographic, clinical and psychodynamic characteristics. They are young, post-adolescent individuals, mainly with the diagnosis personality disorder and co-morbidity, with a moderate level of structural integration and individuation vs. dependency as the main psychological conflict. We suggest a long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy as the treatment of choice for patients with presented clinical and psychodynamic characteristics and operationalized psychodynamic diagnostic system as a valuable tool for establishing treatment focus and treatment planning.

Ljubisavljevic S.,Clinical Center Nis | Ljubisavljevic S.,University of Niš | Stojanovic I.,University of Niš
Reviews in the Neurosciences | Year: 2015

The role of nitrosative stress in the early pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and demyelination is undoubtedly wide. This review summarizes and integrates the results, found in previously performed studies, which have evaluated nitrosative stress participation in neuroinflammation. The largest number of studies indicates that the supply of nitrosative stress inhibitors has led to the opposite clinical effects in experimental studies. Some results claim that attributing the protective role to nitric oxide, outside the total changes of redox oxidative processes and without following the clinical and paraclinical correlates of neuroinflammation, is an overrated role of this mediator. The fact is that the use of nitrosative stress inhibitors would be justified in the earlier phases of neuroinflammation. The ideal choice would be a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, because its use would preserve the physiological features of nitric oxide produced by the effects of constitutive NOS. This review discusses the antinitrosative therapy as a potential mode of therapy that aims to control neuroinflammation in early phases, delaying its later phases, which are accompanied with irreversible neurological disabilities. Some parameters of nitrosative stress might serve as surrogate biomarkers for neuroinflammation intensity and its radiological and clinical correlates.

Ristic L.,Clinical Center Nis
Medicinski pregled | Year: 2010

The magnitude of problem with tuberculosis lies in the fact that one third of the world population is infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Even in the 21st century, tuberculosis kills more people than any other infective agent. Definition of case of resistance--the case of resistant tuberculosis is precisely defined by the recommendations of the World Health Organization as primary, initial, acquired multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis. The development of resistance tuberculosis may result from the administration of mono-therapy or inadequate combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs. A possible role of doctors in the development of multi drug-resistant tuberculosis is very important. Actually, multi drug-resistant tuberculosis is a direct consequence of mistakes in prescribing chemotherapy, provision of anti-tuberculosis drugs, surveillance of the patient and decision-making regarding further treatment as well as in a wrong way of administration of anti-tuberculosis drugs. The problem of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in the world has become very alarming. In South Africa, extensively drug resistant tuberculosis accounts for 24% of all tuberculosis case. It can be concluded that only adequate treatment according to directly supervised short regiment for correctly categorized cases of tuberculosis can stop the escalation of multidrug or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, which is actually an incurable illness in the 21st century.

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