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Belfast, United Kingdom

Lloyd F.,Pharmacy Development | Parsons C.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | Hughes C.M.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | Hughes C.M.,Queens University of Belfast
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2010

Objectives Supplementary prescribing has seen pharmacists assume greater responsibility for prescribing in collaboration with doctors. This study explored the context and experiences, in relation to the practice of supplementary prescribing, of pharmacists and physicians (who acted as their training mentors) at least 12 months after pharmacists had qualified as supplementary prescribers. Methods The setting was primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Northern Ireland. Pharmacists and mentors who had participated in a pre-training study were invited to take part. All pharmacists (n = 47) were invited to participate in focus groups, while mentors (n = 35) were asked to participate in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The research took place between May 2005 and September 2007. All discussions and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using constant comparison. Key findings Nine pharmacist focus groups were convened (number per group ranging from three to six; total n = 40) and 31 semi-structured interviews with mentors were conducted. The six main themes that emerged were optimal practice setting, professional progression for prescribing pharmacists, outcomes for prescribing pharmacists, mentors and patients, relationships, barriers to implementation and the future of pharmacist prescribing. Where practised, pharmacist prescribing had been accepted, worked best for chronic disease management, was perceived to have reduced doctors' workload and improved continuity of care for patients. However, three-quarters of pharmacists qualified to practise as supplementary prescribers were not actively prescribing, largely due to logistical and organisational barriers rather than inter-professional tensions. Independent prescribing was seen as contentious by mentors, particularly because of the diagnostic element. Conclusions Supplementary prescribing has been successful where it has been implemented but a number of barriers remain which are preventing the wider acceptance of this practice innovation. © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Source

Patterson S.M.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | Hughes C.M.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | Cardwell C.,Queens University of Belfast | Lapane K.L.,Virginia Commonwealth University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an adapted U.S. model of pharmaceutical care to improve psychoactive prescribing for nursing home residents in Northern Ireland (Fleetwood NI Study). DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Nursing homes in NI randomized to intervention (receipt of the adapted model of care; n=11) or control (usual care continued; n=11). PARTICIPANTS: Residents aged 65 and older who provided informed consent (N=253; 128 intervention, 125 control) and who had full resource use data at 12 months. INTERVENTION: Trained pharmacists reviewed intervention home residents' clinical and prescribing information for 12 months, applied an algorithm that guided them in assessing the appropriateness of psychoactive medication, and worked with prescribers (general practitioners) to make changes. The control homes received usual care in which there was no pharmacist intervention. MEASUREMENTS: The proportion of residents prescribed one or more inappropriate psychoactive medications (according to standardized protocols), costs, and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. The latter two outcomes are the focus for this article. RESULTS: The proportions of residents receiving inappropriate psychoactive medication at 12 months in the intervention and control group were 19.5% and 50.4%, respectively. The mean cost of healthcare resources used per resident per year was $4,923 (95% confidence interval (CI)=$4,206-5,640) for the intervention group and $5,053 (95% CI=$4,328-5,779) for the control group. The probability of the intervention being cost-effective was high, even at low levels of willingness to pay to avoid a resident receiving inappropriately prescribed psychoactive medication. CONCLUSION: The Fleetwood NI model of care was more cost-effective than usual care. © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society. Source

Suyagh M.F.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | Kole P.L.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | Millership J.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | Collier P.,Clinical and Practice Research Group | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2010

A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography (LC)-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI)-mass spectroscopic (MS) assay of canrenone has been developed and validated employing Dried Blood Spots (DBS) as the sample collection medium. DBS samples were prepared by applying 30 μl of spiked whole blood onto Guthrie cards. A 6 mm disc was punched from the each DBS and extracted with 2 ml of methanolic solution of 17α-methyltestosterone (Internal Standard). The methanolic extract was evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in acetonitrile:water (1:9, v/v). The reconstituted solution was further subjected to solid phase extraction using HLB cartridges. Chromatographic separation was achieved using Waters Sunfire C18 reversed-phase column using isocratic elution, followed by a high organic wash to clear late eluting/highly retained components. The mobile phase consisted of methanol:water (60:40, v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. LC-APCI-MS detection was performed in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode using target ions at m/z 341.1 and 303.3 for canrenone and internal standard respectively. The selectivity of the method was established by analysing DBS samples from 6 different sources (individuals). The calibration curve for canrenone was found to be linear over 25-1000 ng/ml (r > 0.994). Accuracy (% RE) and precision (% CV) values for within and between day were <20% at the lower limit of quantification (LLQC) and <15% at all other concentrations tested. The LLOQ of the method was validated at 25 ng/ml. Clinical validation of the method was achieved by employing the validated method for analysis of 160 DBS samples from 37 neonatal and paediatric patients. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Mukattash T.L.,Jordan University of Science and Technology | Wazaify M.,University of Jordan | Khuri-Boulos N.,University of Jordan | Jarab A.,Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy | Year: 2011

Objective To assess current experiences and attitudes of hospital based paediatricians towards off-label medicine prescribing. Setting Paediatric hospital wards and out-patient clinics. Design A prospective, questionnaire based study. Results A 30 item questionnaire was sent to 300 hospital based paediatricians and 250 (83%) were returned completed. Over 69% of responders were familiar with the term off-label medicines. However, only 28% were knowingly prescribing off-label medicines to children. The majority of respondents (90%) expressed concerns about the safety and efficacy of off-label medicines. Only 15% had observed Adverse Drug Reactions, and 31% a treatment failure. The vast majority of respondents (83%) did not obtain informed consent or tell parents they were prescribing off label medicines to their children. Conclusions Off-label prescribing of medicines to children is a familiar concept to the majority of paediatricians in Jordan although only a smaller number are aware that it is common in their practice. Respondents showed concern about off label prescribing, although the majority do not consider it necessary to inform parents. More comprehensive research is needed in this area in Jordan and other Middle Eastern countries. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source

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