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Boettcher J.P.,Robert Koch Institute | Siwakoti Y.,Purbanchal University | Milojkovic A.,Clinical and Molecular Oncology | Siddiqui N.A.,Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: To eliminate visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India and Nepal, challenges of VL diagnosis, treatment and reporting need to be identified. Recent data indicate that VL is underreported and patients face delays when seeking treatment. Moreover, VL surveillance data might not reach health authorities on time. This study quantifies delays for VL diagnosis and treatment, and analyses the duration of VL reporting from district to central health authorities in India and Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in 12 districts of Terai region, Nepal, and 9 districts of Bihar State, India, in 2012. Patients were interviewed in hospitals or at home using a structured questionnaire, health managers were interviewed at their work place using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews were conducted with central level health managers. Reporting formats were evaluated. Data was analyzed using two-tailed Mann-Whitney U or Fisher's exact test. Results: 92 VL patients having experienced 103 VL episodes and 49 district health managers were interviewed. Patients waited in Nepal 30 days (CI 18-42) before seeking health care, 3.75 times longer than in Bihar (8d; CI 4-12). Conversely, the lag time from seeking health care to receiving a VL diagnosis was 3.6x longer in Bihar (90d; CI 68-113) compared to Nepal (25d; CI 13-38). The time span between diagnosis and treatment was short in both countries. VL reporting time was in Nepal 19 days for sentinel sites and 76 days for "District Public Health Offices (DPHOs)". In Bihar it was 28 days for "District Malaria Offices". In Nepal, 73% of health managers entered data into computers compared to 16% in Bihar. In both countries reporting was mainly paper based and standardized formats were rarely used. Conclusions: To decrease the delay between onset of symptoms and getting a proper diagnosis and treatment the approaches in the two countries vary: In Nepal health education for seeking early treatment are needed while in Bihar the use of private and non-formal practitioners has to be discouraged. Reinforcement of VL sentinel reporting in Bihar, reorganization of DPHOs in Nepal, introduction of standardized reporting formats and electronic reporting should be conducted in both countries. © Boettcher et al.

Milojkovic A.,Clinical and Molecular Oncology | Hemmati P.G.,Clinical and Molecular Oncology | Muer A.,Clinical and Molecular Oncology | Overkamp T.,Clinical and Molecular Oncology | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

The p14ARF tumor suppressor triggers cell death or cell cycle arrest upon oncogenic stress. In MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, expression of the tumor suppressor gene p14ARF fails to trigger apoptosis but induces an arrest in the G1 and, to a lesser extent, in the G2 phase in the cell division cycle. Here, inhibition of cell cycle arrest resulted in apoptosis induction in caspase-3 proficient MCF-7 cells upon expression of p14 ARF. This occurred in the absence of S-phase progression or mitotic entry. In contrast, syngeneic, caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells remained entirely resistant to p14ARF-induced apoptosis. Thus, cell cycle checkpoint abrogation overcomes resistance to p14ARF-induced cell death and promotes cell death via a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Cell death coincided with dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and was inhibitable by pan-caspase inhibitors and the caspase-3/7 inhibitor zDEVD-fmk. Of note, mitochondrial events of apoptosis execution depended entirely on caspase-3 proficiency indicating that caspase-3 either acts "up-stream" of the mitochondria in a "non-canonical" pathway or mediates a mitochondrial feedback loop to amplify the apoptotic caspase signal in p14ARF-induced stress signaling. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

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