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Squassina A.,University of Cagliari | Manchia M.,University of Cagliari | Manchia M.,Dalhousie University | Chillotti C.,University of Cagliari | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2013

Abstract An altered polyamine system has been suggested to play a key role in mood disorders and suicide, a hypothesis corroborated by the evidence that lithium inhibits the polyamine mediated stress response in the rat brain. Recent post-mortem studies have shown that spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1), the key regulator of cellular polyamine content, is under-expressed in brains from suicide victims compared to controls. In our study we tested the effect of in vitro lithium treatment on SAT1 gene and protein expression in B lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCLs) from bipolar disorder (BD) patients who committed suicide (and for which BLCLs were collected prior to their death), BD patients with high and low risk of suicide and a sample of non-psychiatric controls. Baseline mRNA levels were similar in the four groups of subjects (p > 0.05). Lithium had no effect in suicide completers (p > 0.05) while it significantly increased SAT1 expression in the high risk (p < 0.001) and low risk (p < 0.01) groups as well as in controls (p < 0.001). Protein and mRNA levels were not correlated; lithium significantly reduced protein levels only in the control sample (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that SAT1 transcription is influenced by lithium and that this effect is altered in BD patients who completed suicide, further supporting a role for polyamines in suicide. © CINP 2013.

Carta M.G.,Clinical and Molecular Medicine | Oumar F.W.,Clinical and Molecular Medicine | Moro M.F.,Clinical and Molecular Medicine | Moro D.,Clinical and Molecular Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Year: 2013

Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reported to be common among refugees. We set out to explore risk of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders and the associated burden of psychological distress in a refugee camp of Malian Refugees in Burkina Faso. Methods: One out of five persons living in the camp was selected randomly and interviewed using the French version of the Short Screening Scale for PTSD and the validated K6 scale to measure psychiatric morbidity. Results: Around 60% of the interviewed sample (N=408) met the criteria for Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders and also reported severe mental distress on K6 scores. Women aged 40 and over were found to be at higher risk of Traumaand Stressor-Related Disorders whereas young people (39 or younger) scored higher on K6 ratings. Around 83% of the surveyed subjects had a family member killed in the war, 91% a relative in the war, more than 80% had a family member suffering from physical injuries, and 90% reported problems with food and housing. The frequency of these life events was not surprisingly higher in persons with Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders, with the death of a family member and severe problems with food being specifically related to them. Conclusion: These results point to important psychological suffering in a population that is often ignored by the media and international political authorities. Immediate steps are required to provide urgent legal and humanitarian protection to those who are forced to flee their homes and cross international borders because of disasters. © Carta et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

Carta M.G.,Clinical and Molecular Medicine | Preti A.,Clinical and Molecular Medicine | Moro M.F.,Clinical and Molecular Medicine | Aguglia E.,University of Catania | And 13 more authors.
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

The prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in the community is still under debate, as well as the measure of their impact on the well-being of individuals. It was decided to evaluate the prevalence of eating disorders in an Italian community sample as well as to measure the burden of the quality of life of people and to compare it to those attributable to other chronic illnesses. A community survey of 4,999 people using a questionnaire on health services utilization, the Advanced Neuropsychiatric Tools and Assessment Schedule (ANTAS), a semi-structured clinical interview derived from the non-patient version of the DSM-IV (SCID/NP) and Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was conducted. A total of 3,398 individuals were interviewed (68% of those recruited). Lifetime prevalence for overall ED was 1.7%; for anorexia 0.7%; for bulimia 0.6% and for binge eating disorder 0.5%. ED was more frequent in women than in men. No cases of anorexia in men were identified. ED showed an attributable burden in impairing quality of life with no statistically significant differences with those due to major depressive disorder, bipolar spectrum disorders and Wilson's disease. Of the pathological conditions considered, only multiple sclerosis showed a worsening attributable burden. ED thus has a non-negligible frequency in Italy, with severe impact on quality of life comparable to that produced by severe chronic psychiatric and general medical conditions. These elements emphasize that ED is a serious public health issue. © 2014 Institute of Psychiatry.

Andreotti G.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Birmann B.M.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Cozen W.,University of Southern California | De Roos A.J.,Drexel University | And 30 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Past investigations of cigarette smoking and multiple myeloma have been underpowered to detect moderate associations, particularly within subgroups. To clarify this association, we conducted a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium, with individual-level questionnaire data on cigarette smoking history and other covariates. Methods: Using a pooled population of 2,670 cases and 11,913 controls, we computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoking to multiple myeloma risk using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for gender, age group, race, education, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and study center. Results: Neither ever smokers (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.87-1.05), current smokers (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93), nor former smokers (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.92-1.14) had increased risks of multiple myeloma compared with never smokers. Analyses of smoking frequency, pack-years, and duration did not reveal significant or consistent patterns, and there was no significant effect modification by subgroups. Conclusion: Findings from this large pooled analysis do not support the hypothesis of cigarette smoking as a causal factor for multiple myeloma. Impact: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for cancer, but the association with multiple myeloma was inconclusive. This study had excellent power to detect modest associations, and had individual-level data to evaluate confounding and effect modification by potentially important factors that were not evaluated in previous studies. Our findings confirm that smoking is not a risk factor for multiple myeloma. © 2014 AACR.

Sormani M.P.,University of Genoa | Gasperini C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Gasperini C.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Romeo M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | And 24 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2016

Objective: To provide new insights into the role of markers of response to interferon-β therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) in a multicenter setting, focusing on the relevance of MRI lesions in combination with clinical variables. Methods: A large multicenter clinical dataset was collected within the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS (MAGNIMS) network. This included a large cohort of patients with relapsing-remitting MS on interferon-β treatment, MRI and clinical assessments during the first year of treatment, and clinical follow-up of at least 2 additional years. Heterogeneity among centers was assessed before pooling the data. The association of 1-year MRI or clinical relapses with the risk of treatment failure (defined as Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] worsening or treatment switch for inefficacy) and of EDSS worsening alone was evaluated using multivariate Cox models. Results: A pooled dataset of 1,280 patients with relapsing-remitting MS from 9 MAGNIMS centers was analyzed. The risk of failure had a relevant increase with 1 relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-2.44, p < 0.001) and ≥3 new T2 lesions (HR 1.55, 95% CI 0.92-2.60, p 0.09). In patients without relapses and less than 3 new T2 lesions, the 3-year risk of failure and EDSS worsening were 17% and 15%; in patients with 1 relapse or ≥3 new T2 lesions, the risks were 27% and 22%; in patients with both conditions or more than 1 relapse, the risks were 48% (p < 0.001) and 29% (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Substantial MRI activity, particularly if in combination with clinical relapses, during the first year of treatment with interferon-β indicates significant risk of treatment failure and EDSS worsening in the short term. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

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