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Barban F.,Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory | Zannino G.D.,Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory | Santangelo V.,Neuroimaging Laboratory | Santangelo V.,University of Perugia | And 6 more authors.
Neurocase | Year: 2010

We present a case of a little investigated reading disorder we call 'amblyopic dyslexia'. The reading impairment in this patient resulted from a left extrastriate and white matter lesion causing a scotomatic area of partial deficit within the right visual field. The visual deficit was consistent with cerebral amblyopia, that is, reduced form, colour, and light sensitivity without a complete loss of vision. The patient's reading deficit was characterized by accurate single letter naming and almost accurate but effortful single word reading, with no letter-by-letter strategy. The criteria for distinguishing amblyopic dyslexia from other reading disorders and the most appropriate treatment are discussed. © 2010 Psychology Press.


Barban F.,Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory | Barban F.,Neuroimaging Laboratory | Carlesimo G.A.,Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory | Carlesimo G.A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 4 more authors.
Behavioural Neurology | Year: 2013

In this study we tested the gateway hypothesis of Broadmann area 10 (BA10). With a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol we manipulated the saliency-stimulus-oriented (SO) attending-and the memory load-stimulus- independent (SI) attending-during a prospective memory (PM) task. We found a significant main effect of the SO manipulation within the medial BA10 and a significant interaction between SI attending and PM task within the left lateral BA10. Our results give experimental support to the gateway hypothesis. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Barban F.,Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory | Barban F.,Neuroimaging Laboratory | Daniele Zannino G.,Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory | Macaluso E.,Neuroimaging Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2013

Iconic memory is a high-capacity low-duration visual memory store that allows the persistence of a visual stimulus after its offset. The categorical nature of this store has been extensively debated. This study provides functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for brain regions underlying the persistence of postcategorical representations of visual stimuli. In a partial report paradigm, subjects matched a cued row of a 3 × 3 array of letters (postcategorical stimuli) or false fonts (precategorical stimuli) with a subsequent triplet of stimuli. The cued row was indicated by two visual flankers presented at the onset (physical stimulus readout) or after the offset of the array (iconic memory readout). The left planum temporale showed a greater modulation of the source of readout (iconic memory vs. physical stimulus) when letters were presented compared to false fonts. This is a multimodal brain region responsible for matching incoming acoustic and visual patterns with acoustic pattern templates. These findings suggest that letters persist after their physical offset in an abstract postcategorical representation. A targeted region of interest analysis revealed a similar pattern of activation in the Visual Word Form Area. These results suggest that multiple higher-order visual areas mediate iconic memory for postcategorical stimuli. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Lenzi D.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Serra L.,Neuroimaging Laboratory | Perri R.,Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory | Pantano P.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 6 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2011

Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) is associated with the highest annual incidence of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10-15%). a-MCI patients may have only a memory deficit (single domain: sd-a-MCI) or additional dysfunctions affecting other cognitive domains (multiple domain: md-a-MCI). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain activation in 16 sd-a-MCI patients and 14 controls during four different tasks assessing language, memory, attention and empathy functions. We found greater activation in sd-a-MCI compared with controls in the left inferior temporal gyrus (language), the right superior temporal gyrus (memory) and the right dorsal precentral gyrus (attention). Moreover, patients' activation correlated significantly with neuropsychological scores obtained at tests exploring the corresponding function. These findings indicate that fMRI is sensitive to detect early changes occurring in AD pathology and that individuals with sd-a-MCI show increased activation in multiple task-related brain regions. We suggest that these functional changes relate to the development of early compensatory mechanisms that reduce cognitive deficits associated with the progressive accumulation of brain damage. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | University of Rome Tor Vergata, Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory and Neuroimaging Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Neuropsychologia | Year: 2014

Recent studies have suggested that medial (medBA10) and lateral (latBA10) portions of the Brodmann area 10 subserve respectively stimulus-oriented (SO) and stimulus-independent (SI) attending during prospective memory (PM) tasks. We investigated this dissociation by manipulating the saliency (SO) and the memory load (SI) of PM cues. Sixteen healthy subjects participated to a functional imaging protocol with a 222 experimental design, including the factors: task (ongoing target vs. PM cue), Saliency (high vs. low; with targets/cues either embedded or standing out from distracters), and memory load (high vs. low; with 1 or 4 possible PM targets). We localized the medBA10 and latBA10 by means of a localizer task. In medBA10 we found a significant main effects of high Saliency and low memory load; whereas in the left latBA10, we found a significant taskload interaction, with maximal activation for PM cues presented in the high load condition. These results are in agreement with the gateway hypothesis: during a PM task medBA10 biases attention toward external salient stimuli, SO attending, while latBA10 biases attention toward internal mnemonic representations, SI attending. Additional whole-brain analyses highlighted activation of other areas besides BA10, consistent with recent proposals that emphasise the role of distributed networks during PM performance.


PubMed | Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Neurocase | Year: 2010

We present a case of a little investigated reading disorder we call amblyopic dyslexia. The reading impairment in this patient resulted from a left extrastriate and white matter lesion causing a scotomatic area of partial deficit within the right visual field. The visual deficit was consistent with cerebral amblyopia, that is, reduced form, colour, and light sensitivity without a complete loss of vision. The patients reading deficit was characterized by accurate single letter naming and almost accurate but effortful single word reading, with no letter-by-letter strategy. The criteria for distinguishing amblyopic dyslexia from other reading disorders and the most appropriate treatment are discussed.


PubMed | Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Behavioural neurology | Year: 2013

In this study we tested the gateway hypothesis of Broadmann area 10 (BA10). With a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol we manipulated the saliency--stimulus-oriented (SO) attending--and the memory load--stimulus-independent (SI) attending--during a prospective memory (PM) task. We found a significant main effect of the SO manipulation within the medial BA10 and a significant interaction between SI attending and PM task within the left lateral BA10. Our results give experimental support to the gateway hypothesis.


PubMed | Clinical and Behavioural Neurology Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human brain mapping | Year: 2013

Iconic memory is a high-capacity low-duration visual memory store that allows the persistence of a visual stimulus after its offset. The categorical nature of this store has been extensively debated. This study provides functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for brain regions underlying the persistence of postcategorical representations of visual stimuli. In a partial report paradigm, subjects matched a cued row of a 3 3 array of letters (postcategorical stimuli) or false fonts (precategorical stimuli) with a subsequent triplet of stimuli. The cued row was indicated by two visual flankers presented at the onset (physical stimulus readout) or after the offset of the array (iconic memory readout). The left planum temporale showed a greater modulation of the source of readout (iconic memory vs. physical stimulus) when letters were presented compared to false fonts. This is a multimodal brain region responsible for matching incoming acoustic and visual patterns with acoustic pattern templates. These findings suggest that letters persist after their physical offset in an abstract postcategorical representation. A targeted region of interest analysis revealed a similar pattern of activation in the Visual Word Form Area. These results suggest that multiple higher-order visual areas mediate iconic memory for postcategorical stimuli.

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