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Sa-Sousa A.,University of Porto | Jacinto T.,University of Porto | Jacinto T.,Instituto CUF Porto | Azevedo L.F.,University of Porto | And 7 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Allergy | Year: 2014

Objective: The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. Methods: We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Results: Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. Conclusions: There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies. © 2014 Sá-Sousa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Gomes-Alves P.,Laboratorio Of Proteomica | Imrie M.,University of Edinburgh | Gray R.D.,University of Edinburgh | Nogueira P.,INSA IP | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Objectives: The aim of this work was to establish protein profiles in serum and nasal epithelial cells of cystic fibrosis individuals in comparison with controls, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients for specific biomarker signatures identification. Design and methods: Protein extracts were analyzed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Results: The mass spectra revealed a set of peaks with differential expression in serum and nasal cells among the different groups studied, resulting into peak signatures representative/specific of each pathology. Logistic regressions were applied to those peaks; sensitivity, specificity, Youden's indexes and area under the curve (AUC) of the respective receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. Discussion: Multivariate analysis demonstrated that combination of peaks has a better predictive value than the individual ones. These protein signatures may serve as diagnostic/prognostic markers for the studied diseases with common clinical features, or as follow-up assessment markers of therapeutic interventions. © 2009 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.

Pacheco S.A.,Laboratorio Of Proteomica | Torres V.M.,Laboratorio Of Proteomica | Louro H.,Laboratorio Of Proteomica | Gomes F.,Laboratorio Of Proteomica | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2013

In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m 3, a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m3) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m3). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these events seem to precede the first symptoms of tobacco-related diseases, our findings might contribute to elucidation of early SHS-induced pathogenic mechanisms and constitute a useful tool for monitoring the effects of SHS on occupationally exposed individuals such as those working in the hospitality industry. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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