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Sobrevia L.,University of Santiago de Chile | Abarzua F.,University of Santiago de Chile | Nien J.K.,Clinica Davila | Salomon C.,University of Santiago de Chile | And 7 more authors.
Placenta | Year: 2011

Human endothelial dysfunction is a common feature in many diseases of pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes (GD). Metabolic changes include abnormal synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and abnormal membrane transport of l-arginine and adenosine in primary cultures of human umbilical vein (HUVEC, macrovascular) and placental microvillus (hPMEC, microvascular) endothelial cells. These alterations are associated with modifications in the expression and activity of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) NO synthases, respectively, an effect that is maintained at least up to passage 5 in culture. HUVEC and hPMEC exhibit expression and activity of the human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1), equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 (hENT1) and hENT2, as well as the corresponding SLC7A1, SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 gene promoter activities. Altered gene expression results from increased NO level, protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and hCHOP-C/EBPα transcription factor activation. Reduced ENT-mediated adenosine transport in GD is associated with stimulation of the l-arginine/NO pathway, and mainly due to reduced expression and activity of hENT1. In addition, hENT2 activity seems able to restore the reduced adenosine transport in GD. Additionally, insulin exerts a differential modulation of endothelial cells from macrocirculation compared with microcirculation, possibly due to expression of different insulin receptor isoforms. It is suggested that a common functional characteristic leading to changes in the bioavailability of adenosine and metabolism of l-arginine is evidenced by human fetal micro and macrovascular endothelium in GD.

Ojeda D.,Clinica Davila | Gomez R.,University of Los Andes, Chile | Burgos A.,University of Los Andes, Chile
Revista Medica de Chile | Year: 2016

Medical research is constantly looking for causality. Among study designs, randomized controlled trials are the most reliable way to estimate causal effects but are not always feasible. When this is the case, observational studies must be performed but this type of design unavoidably implies bias. Propensity scores, defined as the probability to receive a treatment conditional to a set of covariables allows to overcome confusion bias when searching for causal effects. © 2016, Sociedad Medica de Santiago. All Rights Reserved.

Elematore I.,University of Chile | Gonzalez-Hormazabal P.,University of Chile | Reyes J.M.,Clinica Las Condes | Blanco R.,University of Chile | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer (BC) among women of Asian, European, and African-American ancestry. Nevertheless, the contribution of these variants in the South American population is unknown. Furthermore, there is little information about the effect of these risk alleles in women with early BC diagnosis. In the present study, we evaluated the association between rs3803662 (TOX3, also known as TNRC9), rs13387042 (2q35), and rs13281615 (8q24) with BC risk in 344 Chilean BRCA1/2-negative BC cases and in 801 controls. Two SNPs, rs3803662 and rs13387042, were significantly associated with increased BC risk in familial BC and in non-familial early-onset BC. The risk of BC increased in a dose-dependent manner with the number of risk alleles (P-trend < 0.0001 and 0.0091, respectively). The odds ratios for BC in familial BC and in early-onset non-familial BC were 3.76 (95 %CI 1.02-13.84, P = 0.046) and 8.0 (95 %CI 2.20-29.04, P = 0.002), respectively, for the maximum versus minimum number of risk alleles. These results indicate an additive effect of the TOX3 rs3803662 and 2q35 rs13387042 alleles for BC risk. We also evaluated the interaction between rs3803662 and rs13387042 SNPs. We observed an additive interaction only in non-familial early-onset BC cases (AP = 0.72 (0.28-1.16), P = 0.001). No significant association was observed for rs13281615 (8q24) with BC risk in women from the Chilean population. The strongly increased risk associated with the combination of low-penetrance risk alleles supports the polygenic inheritance model of BC. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

Jara L.,University of Chile | Dubois K.,University of Chile | Gaete D.,University of Chile | De Mayo T.,University of Chile | And 8 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

The double-strand break (DSB) DNA repair pathway has been implicated in breast cancer (BC). RAD51 and its paralogs XRCC3 and RAD51D play an important role in the repair of DSB through homologous recombination (HR). Some polymorphisms including XRCC3-Thr241Met, RAD51-135G>C, and RAD51D-E233G have been found to confer increased BC susceptibility. In order to detect novel mutations that may contribute to BC susceptibility, 150 patients belonging to 150 Chilean BRCA1/2-negative families were screened for mutations in XRCC3. No mutations were detected in the XRCC3 gene. In addition, using a case-control design we studied the XRCC3-Thr241Met, and RAD51D-E233G polymorphisms in 267 BC cases and 500 controls to evaluate their possible association with BC susceptibility. The XRCC3 Met/Met genotype was associated with an increased BC risk (P = 0.003, OR = 2.44 [95%CI 1.34-4.43]). We did not find an association between E233G polymorphism and BC risk. We also analyzed the effect of combined genotypes among RAD51-135G>C, Thr241Met, and E233G polymorphisms on BC risk. No interaction was observed between Thr241Met and 135G>C. The combined genotype Thr/Met-E/G was associated with an increased BC risk among women who (a) have a family history of BC, (b) are BRCA1/2-negative, and (c) were <50 years at onset (n = 195) (P = 0.037, OR = 10.5 [95%CI 1.16-94.5]). Our results suggested that the variability of the DNA HR repair genes XRCC3 and RAD51D may play a role in BC risk, but this role may be underlined by a mutual interaction between these genes. These findings should be confirmed in other populations. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Gonzalez-Hormazabal P.,University of Chile | Reyes J.M.,Clinica Las Condes | Blanco R.,University of Chile | Bravo T.,National Cancer Society Corporacion Nacional del Cancer CONAC | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Since the discovery of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, much work has been carried out to identify further breast cancer (BC) susceptibility genes. BARD1 (BRCA1-associated ring domain) was originally identified as a BRCA1-interacting protein but has also been described in tumor-suppressive functions independent of BRCA1. Some association studies have suggested that the BARD1 Cys557Ser variant might be associated with increased risk of BC, but others have failed to confirm this finding. To date, this variant has not been analyzed in Spanish or South-American populations. In this study, using a case-control design, we analyzed the C-terminal Cys557Ser change in 322 Chilean BC cases with no mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and in 570 controls in order to evaluate its possible association with BC susceptibility. BARD1 Cys557Ser was associated with an increased BC risk (P = 0.04, OR = 3.4 [95 % CI 1.2-10.2]) among cases belonging to families with a strong family history of BC. No difference between single cases affected with age <50 years at diagnosis (n = 117) and controls was observed for carriers of Cys/Ser genotype. It is likely that this variant is not involved in BC risk in this group of women. We also analyzed a possible interaction between BARD1 557Ser/XRCC3 241Met variants considering the role of both genes in the maintenance of genome integrity. The combined genotype Cys/Ser-carrier with the XRCC3 241Met allele was associated with an increased BC risk (P = 0.02, OR = 5.01 [95 % CI 1.36-18.5]) among women belonging to families with at least three BC and/or ovarian cancer cases. Our results suggest that BARD1 557Ser and XRCC3 241Met may play roles in BC risk in women with a strong family history of BC. Nevertheless there is no evidence of an interaction between the two SNPs. These findings should be confirmed by other studies and in other populations. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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