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Gouveia M.J.,University of Porto | Gouveia M.J.,Insa National Health Institute Dr Ricardo Jorge | Santos J.,University of Porto | Brindley P.J.,George Washington University | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Letters

An estrogen-DNA adduct mediated pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of the squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with infection with the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium. Extracts from developmental stages of S. haematobium, including eggs, induce tumor-like phenotypes in cultured cells. In addition, estrogen-derived, reactive metabolites occur in this pathogen and in sera of infected persons. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was performed on urine from 40 Angolans diagnosed with urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS), half of who also presented UGS-associated squamous cell carcinoma and/or urothelial cell carcinoma. The analysis revealed numerous estrogen-like metabolites, including seven specifically identified in UGS cases, but not reported in the database of metabolites in urine of healthy humans. These schistosome infection-associated metabolites included catechol estrogen quinones (CEQ) and CEQ-DNA-adducts, two of which had been identified previously in S. haematobium. In addition, novel metabolites derived directly from 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) were identified in urine of all 40 cases of UGS. These metabolites can be expected to provide deeper insights into the carcinogenesis UGS-induced bladder cancer, and as biomarkers for diagnosis and/or prognosis of this neglected tropical disease-linked cancer. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Botelho M.C.,University of Porto | Botelho M.C.,National Institute of Health | Vale N.,University of Porto | Gouveia M.J.,University of Porto | And 8 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology

Chronic infection with the blood fluke, Schistosoma haematobium, is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Previously, it has been shown that soluble extracts of mixed sex adult S. haematobium worms (SWAP) are tumourigenic, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, oestrogen-related molecules in SWAP of S. haematobium down-regulate oestrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta in oestrogen responsive cells. Moreover, schistosome oestrogens occur in sera of persons with schistosomiasis haematobia and repress transcription of ERs in urothelial cells. Given that eggs of S. haematobium are the developmental stage directly responsible for urogenital disease during schistosomiasis haematobia, we suspected that soluble antigens from S. haematobium eggs exhibit similar or more potent tumorigenic capacity. Here we investigated the tumorigenic potential of soluble egg antigens (Sh-SEA) of S. haematobium and the endocrine system in favouring parasitism by schistosomes. The findings confirmed that 6.25. μg/ml of Sh-SEA was enough to stimulate cell proliferation, reduce apoptosis and increase oxidative stress of Sh-SEA-exposed urothelial cells. In addition, genotoxic effects of Sh-SEA on these cells were determined by using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet). Furthermore, Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection Electron Spray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry indicated the presence of catechol-oestrogens in S. haematobium SEA. A prospective oestrogen-DNA adduct mediated pathway in S. haematobium egg induced bladder cancer is also discussed. © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Source

Santos J.,Clinica da Sagrada Esperanca | Gouveia M.J.,University of Porto | Vale N.,University of Porto | De Lurdes Delgado M.,National Institute of Health | And 19 more authors.

Background: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in 76 countries, that afflicts more than 240 million people. The impact of schistosomiasis on infertility may be underestimated according to recent literature. Extracts of Schistosoma haematobium include estrogen-like metabolites termed catechol-estrogens that down regulate estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estrogen responsive cells. In addition, schistosome derived catechol-estrogens induce genotoxicity that result in estrogen-DNA adducts. These catechol estrogens and the catechol-estrogen-DNA adducts can be isolated from sera of people infected with S. haematobium . The aim of this study was to study infertility in females infected with S. haematobium and its association with the presence of schistosome-derived catechol-estrogens. Methodology/Principal Findings: A cross-sectional study was undertaken of female residents of a region in Bengo province, Angola, endemic for schistosomiasis haematobia. Ninety-three women and girls, aged from two (parents interviewed) to 94 years were interviewed on present and previous urinary, urogenital and gynecological symptoms and complaints. Urine was collected from the participants for egg-based parasitological assessment of schistosome infection, and for liquid chromatography diode array detection electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV-DAD/ESI-MSn) to investigate estrogen metabolites in the urine. Novel estrogen-like metabolites, potentially of schistosome origin, were detected in the urine of participants who were positive for eggs of S. haematobium, but not detected in urines negative for S. haematobium eggs. The catechol-estrogens/ DNA adducts were significantly associated with schistosomiasis (OR 3.35; 95% CI 2.32-4.84; P≤0.001). In addition, presence of these metabolites was positively associated with infertility (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.13-16.70; P≤0.05). Conclusions/Significance: Estrogen metabolites occur widely in diverse metabolic pathways. In view of the statistically significant association between catechol-estrogens/ DNA adducts and self-reported infertility, we propose that an estrogen- DNA adduct mediated pathway in S. haematobium-induced ovarian hormonal deregulation could be involved. In addition, the catechol-estrogens/ DNA adducts described here represent potential biomarkers for schistosomiasis haematobia. © 2014 Santos et al. Source

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