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Zürich, Switzerland

Lange C.E.,Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine | Lange C.E.,Institute of Virology | Favrot C.,Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine | Ackermann M.,Institute of Virology | And 4 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2011

Papillomaviruses (PVs) are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota). This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1). It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF) frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9%) and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus) PV1 (55.4%), thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts. © 2011 Lange et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Wenger S.,Clinic for Zoo Animals | Gull J.,Clinic for Zoo Animals | Glaus T.,Clinic for Small Animals | Blumer S.,University of Zurich | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2010

A 20-mo-old, female, 9-kg European beaver (Castor fiber) presented with apathy, reduced appetite of 3-day duration and a grade 5/6 systolic heart murmur. Thoracic radiographs revealed a diffuse broncho-interstitial pattern suspicious for bronchopneumonia. The echocardiographic findings of a hypertrophied right ventricle, ventricular septal defect with overriding aorta, and infundibular pulmonic stenosis were consistent with Fallot's tetralogy. Even though the bronchopneumonia rather than the congenital cardiac defect was considered of primary importance for the presenting clinical signs, the latter was relevant for the decision not to continue any medical treatment. Both disease processes were confirmed on necropsy. © 2010 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Steuer P.,University of Bonn | Clauss M.,Clinic for Zoo Animals | Sudekum K.-H.,University of Bonn | Hatt J.-M.,Clinic for Zoo Animals | And 6 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2010

Rhinoceroses represent the largest extant herbivores with extensive dietary specialization for plant groups like browse (black rhino Diceros bicornis) or grass (white rhino Ceratotherium simum). However, it is not clear to what extent such diet selection patterns are reflected in adaptations of digestive physiology of the respective feeding types. In this study, feeding trials with four black and five white rhinos were conducted in four zoos. The animals had ad libitum access to the same batch of grass hay (second cut; neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 63% dry matter (DM), crude protein 10.2% DM). Total intake, fecal N content, in vitro digestibility of NDF residues of feces, fecal particle size and mean retention time (MRT) of particles (Cr-mordanted fiber; 1-2 mm) and fluid (Co-EDTA) were quantified. The average daily DM intake was 70 ± 12 g/kg BW0.75 for white and 73 ± 10 g/kg BW0.75 for black rhinos. In the in vitro fermentation test fecal NDF residues of black rhinos resulted in higher gas productions at fermentation times of 12 to 24 h, indicating that white rhinos have a superior capacity to digest NDF. Average MRT for fluids and particles was 28 ± 4 h and 43 ± 5 h in white and 34 ± 4 h and 39 ± 4 h in black rhinos. The selectivity factor (SF = MRTparticle / MRTfluid) was higher for white (1.5 ± 0.2) than for black rhinos (1.2 ± 0.1) (p = 0.016). In a comparison of 12 ruminant and 3 rhino species, SF was correlated to percentage of grass in diet (R = 0.75). Mean fecal particle size was higher in white (9.1 ± 1.94 mm) than in black rhinos (6.1 ± 0.79 mm) (p = 0.016). The results demonstrate differences between white and black rhinos in terms of retention times and fiber digestibility. The more selective retention of particles by the white rhino corresponds with the higher digestion of fiber measured indirectly. Furthermore there is indication for a general pattern of high SF in grazing ruminants and rhinos. The difference in fecal particle size between both rhino species might be due to the considerable difference in body weight. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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