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Hannover, Germany

Kauffold J.,University of Pennsylvania | Failing K.,Justus Liebig University | Wehrend A.,Justus Liebig University | Wendt M.,Clinic for Swine
Journal of Reproduction and Development

This study was conducted to determine uterine echogenicity by grey-scale analysis (GSA) and transcutaneous ultrasonography in pregnant sows (P-sows; n=16) and gilts (P-gilts; n=13) vs. cyclic gilts (C-gilts; n=9) between days 8 and 16 post ovulation (po) with the aims of testing for feasibility of uterine GSA and of gathering reference data. Estruses and ovulations were hormonally synchronized and the animals artificially inseminated. Ovulation was monitored by ultrasound. The equipment used was a HS 2000 ultrasound unit and a 5 MHz linear probe. Unit settings were standardized for all GSA scanning sessions and the animals crated during scanning. For GSA, cross-sections of the uterine horns were imaged, entirely defined as regions of interest, and pixel analyses done. A total of 342 scanning sessions were performed, 341 GSA accomplished, and 1-13 cross-sections analyzed per session. Comparison of coefficients of variation suggests that analysis of two cross-sections per session is sufficient for a reliable GSA per animal. P-sows and P-gilts were similar in their echogenicity course, but differed from C-gilts. Most noticeable, echogenicity declined in pregnant animals on day 12 po, while it increased in cyclic gilts. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that GSA using transcutaneous ultrasound is a feasible procedure for the determination of uterine echogenicity in the pig, and that pregnant and cyclic pigs differ in the uterine echogenicity, particularly during the time when maternal recognition of pregnancy occurs. © 2010 by the Society for Reproduction and Development. Source

Klevenhusen F.,Institute of Animal Nutrition | Klevenhusen F.,Research Cluster Animal Gut Health | Muro-Reyes A.,Autonomous University of Zacatecas | Khiaosa-ard R.,Institute of Animal Nutrition | And 5 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology

This study examined the role of supplementation of several bioactive compounds (BC) and the chemical composition of the diet used as substrate for in vitro incubations, on in vitro ruminal fermentation profile and nutrient degradation. A meta-analytical approach was used to weigh the sample size used in each experiment, and account for the random effect of each as well as unequal variance among studies. A total of 20 recently conducted experiments with 354 treatments, each including one control (i.e., no BC supplementation), fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Doses of BC supplementation varied from 0.03 to 500mg/g dry matter (DM) of incubated diet. Contents of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of the incubated diets (DM basis) ranged from 139 to 189 g/kg and 160 to 420 g/kg, respectively. Results indicate that supplementation of BC linearly decreased (137.4 versus 116.5mmol/L; P<0.05) concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and proportion of acetate (P<0.05). Also, the concentration of ammonia in the in vitro rumen fluid was lower with BC supplementation (22.9 versus 15.6mg/dL; P<0.05). Analysis by backward elimination correlation analysis revealed that inclusion of the chemical composition of the incubated diet into the model with BC supplementation improved the accuracy of estimation of responses of fermentation variables. Thus, higher NDF and CP contents of the substrate and higher BC dosage were associated with lower concentrations of total VFA (r 2=0.54), whereas both lower CP contents of the substrate and BC supplementation lowered the concentration of ammonia (r 2=0.32). This analysis showed negative associations between BC supplementation and in vitro disappearance of DM and NDF, and positive correlations with dietary NDF content. In contrast, higher BC inclusion and lowering NDF content in the diet was accompanied with decreased in vitro CH 4 formation (r 2=0.21). Results indicate that BC supplementation and chemical composition of the incubated diet are determining factors which impact responses of in vitro ruminal fermentation and degradation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Laroucau K.,French Agency for Food | Di Francesco A.,University of Bologna | Vorimore F.,French Agency for Food | Thierry S.,French Agency for Food | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Chlamydia felis is an important ocular pathogen in cats worldwide. A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) system for the detection of tandem repeats across the whole genome of C. felis strain Fe/C-56 was developed. Nine selected genetic loci were tested by MLVA in 17 C. felis isolates, including the C. felis Baker vaccine strain, and 122 clinical samples from different geographic origins. Analysis of the results identified 25 distinct C. felis MLVA patterns. In parallel, a recently described multilocus sequence typing scheme for the typing of Chlamydia was applied to 13 clinical samples with 12 different C. felis MLVA patterns. Rare sequence differences were observed. Thus, the newly developed MLVA system provides a highly sensitive high-resolution test for the differentiation of C. felis isolates from different origins that is suitable for molecular epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Kauffold J.,Large Animal Clinic for Theriogenology | Gmeiner K.,Large Animal Clinic for Theriogenology | Sobiraj A.,Large Animal Clinic for Theriogenology | Richter A.,Large Animal Clinic for Theriogenology | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal

The urinary bladders of sows (n = 10) without urinary tract infection (UTI) were longitudinally transrectally scanned after emptying and refilling with 200, 400, 600 and 800 mL saline, and a volume dependence was found for bladder depth (BD), dorsal (dWT) and ventral wall thicknesses (vWT), wall regularity (WR) and mucosal wall surface (mWS). When another 31 sows without and 15 with UTI (as defined on the basis of high bacterial count and macroscopic/biochemical urine abnormalities) were compared for these parameters using BD as volume equivalent, no differences were found. Sows with UTI more often had moderate to high amounts of sediment than animals without UTI. Ultrasonographic assessment of dWT, vWT, WR and mWS of the urinary bladder of sows requires knowledge of bladder volume, and BD may be used as a volume equivalent. However, the parameters are inappropriate for the diagnosis of UTI as defined in this study, while moderate/high amounts of sediment seem to be indicative. Sediment can be visualized by transrectal scanning, but this is also possible using the transcutaneous route. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Mann E.,Institute of Milk Hygiene | Mann E.,Research Cluster Animal Gut Health | Schmitz-Esser S.,Institute of Milk Hygiene | Schmitz-Esser S.,Research Cluster Animal Gut Health | And 9 more authors.

Dietary composition largely influences pig's gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P) contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements) in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based) in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change) at the gastric Pars nonglandularis (P = 0.035). Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs. © 2014 Mann et al. Source

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