Hannover, Germany
Hannover, Germany

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PubMed | University of Leipzig, Clinic for Swine, Scanelis, National Veterinary School of Alfort and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary internal medicine | Year: 2016

Fecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs.Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding.Three hundred and twenty-four puppies.Fecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization. Canine parvovirus and coronavirus were detected in feces by qPCR and qRT-PCR respectively. Giardia intestinalis antigen was quantified by ELISA. The standard McMaster flotation technique was used to detect eggs and oocysts in feces. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations were quantified by in-house radioimmunoassays.For each marker (IgA and calprotectin), a strong positive correlation was observed between concentration in fresh feces and concentration in fecal dry matter. 75.6% of the puppies were found to be infected by at 1 of the enteropathogens evaluated. Fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly influenced by age (P = .001), with higher concentrations in younger puppies, but not by viral (P = .863) or parasitic infection (P = .791). Fecal IgA concentration was significantly influenced by enteropathogen shedding (P = .01), with a lower fecal IgA concentration in puppies shedding at 1 enteropathogen compared to puppies without any enteropathogen shedding, but not by age.Fecal calprotectin and IgA are of no diagnostic value to detect presence of enteropathogens in clinically healthy puppies or puppies with abnormal feces, but could help to better understand the maturation of digestive tract.


Kauffold J.,University of Pennsylvania | Failing K.,Justus Liebig University | Wehrend A.,Justus Liebig University | Wendt M.,Clinic for Swine
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2010

This study was conducted to determine uterine echogenicity by grey-scale analysis (GSA) and transcutaneous ultrasonography in pregnant sows (P-sows; n=16) and gilts (P-gilts; n=13) vs. cyclic gilts (C-gilts; n=9) between days 8 and 16 post ovulation (po) with the aims of testing for feasibility of uterine GSA and of gathering reference data. Estruses and ovulations were hormonally synchronized and the animals artificially inseminated. Ovulation was monitored by ultrasound. The equipment used was a HS 2000 ultrasound unit and a 5 MHz linear probe. Unit settings were standardized for all GSA scanning sessions and the animals crated during scanning. For GSA, cross-sections of the uterine horns were imaged, entirely defined as regions of interest, and pixel analyses done. A total of 342 scanning sessions were performed, 341 GSA accomplished, and 1-13 cross-sections analyzed per session. Comparison of coefficients of variation suggests that analysis of two cross-sections per session is sufficient for a reliable GSA per animal. P-sows and P-gilts were similar in their echogenicity course, but differed from C-gilts. Most noticeable, echogenicity declined in pregnant animals on day 12 po, while it increased in cyclic gilts. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that GSA using transcutaneous ultrasound is a feasible procedure for the determination of uterine echogenicity in the pig, and that pregnant and cyclic pigs differ in the uterine echogenicity, particularly during the time when maternal recognition of pregnancy occurs. © 2010 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.


Laroucau K.,French Agency for Food | Di Francesco A.,University of Bologna | Vorimore F.,French Agency for Food | Thierry S.,French Agency for Food | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Chlamydia felis is an important ocular pathogen in cats worldwide. A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) system for the detection of tandem repeats across the whole genome of C. felis strain Fe/C-56 was developed. Nine selected genetic loci were tested by MLVA in 17 C. felis isolates, including the C. felis Baker vaccine strain, and 122 clinical samples from different geographic origins. Analysis of the results identified 25 distinct C. felis MLVA patterns. In parallel, a recently described multilocus sequence typing scheme for the typing of Chlamydia was applied to 13 clinical samples with 12 different C. felis MLVA patterns. Rare sequence differences were observed. Thus, the newly developed MLVA system provides a highly sensitive high-resolution test for the differentiation of C. felis isolates from different origins that is suitable for molecular epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Clinic for Swine and Institute for Hygiene and Infectious Diseases of Animals
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2014

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, is responsible for severe mucohaemorrhagic colitis with considerable financial loss to worldwide swine production. Antimicrobial resistance against macrolides and lincosamides is widespread and the mechanisms are well known. Currently, the most common treatment for swine dysentery is the use of pleuromutilins and resistance to these drugs also is increasingly being reported. Although resistance mechanisms against pleuromutilins are less clear than for other drugs, they seem to involve alterations of the peptidyl transferase centre (PTC), including ribosomal RNA and the ribosomal protein L3. The present study was conducted to examine molecular mechanisms of resistance on a representative set of B. hyodysenteriae field strains with different resistance patterns. In total, we identified 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 23S rRNA gene and genes of the ribosomal proteins L3, L4, L2 and L22. The SNP in the ribosomal protein gene L3 at position 443 led to an amino acid substitution of asparagine (Asn) by serine (Ser) at position 148, significantly associated with MICs for pleuromutilins. Based on this SNP a correct assignment of 71% of the strains with respect to a threshold of >0.625 g tiamulin/ml was reached. Unexpectedly low MICs in some of the Asn-strains were explained by a second SNP at position 2535 of the 23S rRNA. Our results clearly show the associations between MICs for pleuromutilins and mutations in their binding site. A complete list of SNPs that influence MICs of B. hyodysenteriae strains is needed to enable the interpretation of future molecular susceptibility testing.


Kauffold J.,Large Animal Clinic for Theriogenology | Gmeiner K.,Large Animal Clinic for Theriogenology | Sobiraj A.,Large Animal Clinic for Theriogenology | Richter A.,Large Animal Clinic for Theriogenology | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2010

The urinary bladders of sows (n = 10) without urinary tract infection (UTI) were longitudinally transrectally scanned after emptying and refilling with 200, 400, 600 and 800 mL saline, and a volume dependence was found for bladder depth (BD), dorsal (dWT) and ventral wall thicknesses (vWT), wall regularity (WR) and mucosal wall surface (mWS). When another 31 sows without and 15 with UTI (as defined on the basis of high bacterial count and macroscopic/biochemical urine abnormalities) were compared for these parameters using BD as volume equivalent, no differences were found. Sows with UTI more often had moderate to high amounts of sediment than animals without UTI. Ultrasonographic assessment of dWT, vWT, WR and mWS of the urinary bladder of sows requires knowledge of bladder volume, and BD may be used as a volume equivalent. However, the parameters are inappropriate for the diagnosis of UTI as defined in this study, while moderate/high amounts of sediment seem to be indicative. Sediment can be visualized by transrectal scanning, but this is also possible using the transcutaneous route. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Clinic for Swine.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2013

Several dietary ingredients may affect the bacterial community structure and metabolism in the porcine gut and may therefore influence animals health and performance. This study investigated the effects of cereal source and calcium-phosphorus (CaP) level in the diet on bacterial microbiota and metabolites, nutrient intake, and gut environment in weaned pigs. Pigs (n=8/treatment) were fed wheat-barley- or corn-based diets with an adequate or high CaP level for 14 days. Effects on microbiota in the stomach, ileum, and midcolon were assessed using quantitative PCR. Data showed that Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter spp., and Helicobacter spp., which all contain highly immune reactive lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were abundant at all gut sites. Diet effects on bacteria and metabolites were moderate and occurred mainly in the upper gut, whereas no effects on bacteria, fermentation products, and LPS could be observed in the colon. Differences in carbohydrate intake with corn versus wheat-barley diets selectively stimulated Bifidobacterium in the stomach and ileum. There was a growth advantage for a few bacterial groups in the stomach and ileum of pigs fed the high versus adequate CaP level (i.e., gastric Enterobacteriaceae and ileal Enterococcus, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas, and Campylobacter). Interestingly, gastrointestinal pH was not affected by dietary CaP level. The present findings demonstrate the stability of the bacterial community and gut environment toward dietary changes even in young pigs. The results on stimulation of gastric and ileal Bifidobacterium by corn diets may be employed in nutritional strategies to support gut health after weaning.

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