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Neubert J.,Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology | Wagner S.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Kiwit J.,Clinic for Neurosurgery | Brauer A.U.,Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology | Glumm J.,Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

The physicochemical properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) enable their application in the diagnostics and therapy of central nervous system diseases. However, since crucial information regarding side effects of particle–cell interactions within the central nervous system is still lacking, we investigated the infuence of novel very small iron oxide particles or the clinically approved ferucarbotran or ferumoxytol on the vitality and morphology of brain cells. We exposed primary cell cultures of microglia and hippocampal neurons, as well as neuron–glia cocultures to varying concentrations of SPIOs for 6 and/or 24 hours, respectively. Here, we show that SPIO accumulation by microglia and subsequent morphological alterations strongly depend on the respective nanoparticle type. Microglial viability was severely compromised by high SPIO concentrations, except in the case of ferumoxytol. While ferumoxytol did not cause immediate microglial death, it induced severe morphological alterations and increased degeneration of primary neurons. Additionally, primary neurons clearly degenerated after very small iron oxide particle and ferucarbotran exposure. In neuron–glia cocultures, SPIOs rather stimulated the outgrowth of neuronal processes in a concentration- and particle-dependent manner. We conclude that the infuence of SPIOs on brain cells not only depends on the particle type but also on the physiological system they are applied to. © 2015, Neubert et al. Source

Schick U.,University of Heidelberg | Jung C.,University of Heidelberg | Hassler W.E.,Clinic for Neurosurgery
Zentralblatt fur Neurochirurgie | Year: 2010

Objective: The management of optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) remains controversial, but includes surgery, radiotherapy and plain observation. We present a follow-up study and treatment modalities based on our classification system. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of 90 patients with optic nerve sheath meningiomas who were treated between 1991 and 2008 (n=65 surgery only, n=5 radiation only, n=18 surgery and postoperative radiation, n=2 observation). Follow-up data was available, ranging from 6 to 220 months with a median of 45.8 months. Results: Our classification system differentiates between intraorbital (type 1), intracanalicular or intrafissural (type 2), and intraorbital and intracranial (type 3) ONSMs. Thirty-seven tumors demonstrated extension through the optic canal (type 2a). 41 further tumors reached the chiasm (type 3a) or contralateral side (type 3b). Visual acuity was not significantly influenced by surgery but did become worse with a longer duration of preoperative symptoms and a longer follow-up period. Radiotherapy improved vision in 4 and preserved vision in 16 out of 23 cases. Conclusions: Loss of vision in optic nerve sheath meningiomas is a question of time. Radiotherapy should be offered for intraorbital ONSM. Surgery with decompression of the optic canal and intracranial tumor resection is still favored for tumors with intracanalicular and intracranial extension. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart - New York. Source

Stienen M.N.,Clinic for Neurosurgery | Hinkerohe D.,University Clinic Bochum Langendreer | Harders A.,University Clinic Bochum Langendreer | Lucke S.,University Clinic Bochum Langendreer
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2013

We present a 66-year-old female patient with a high cervical intramedullary metastasis from a malignant mixed Muellerian tumour (MMMT; carcinosarcoma) with concomitant syringomyelia. She was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of cervical myelopathy. MRI revealed an intramedullary tumour of 2.6 cm × 1.2 cm at the cervical vertebral body C2. We performed a laminectomy on C2 followed by a dorsal median myelotomy from C1 to C3 to resect the tumour. The surgical intervention removed the tumour completely and resolved the syringomyelia. During the 36 months of follow-up, the patient presented in a stable condition with no evidence of tumour recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intramedullary metastasis of a MMMT. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kaminski M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Bechmann I.,University of Leipzig | Pohland M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Kiwit J.,Clinic for Neurosurgery | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2012

The lack of classical lymph vessels within brain tissue complicates immune surveillance of the CNS, and therefore, cellular emigration out of the CNS parenchyma requires alternate pathways. Whereas invasion of blood-derived mononuclear cells and their transformation into ramified, microglia-like cells in areas of ax-onal degeneration across an intact BBB have been demonstrated, it still remained unclear whether these cells reside permanently, undergo apoptosis, or leave the brain to present antigen in lymphoid organs. With the use of ECL of mice and injection of GFP-expressing monocytes, we followed the appearance of injected cells in spleen and LNs and the migratory pathways in whole-head histological sections. Monocytes migrated from the lesion site to deep CLNs, peaking in number at Day 7, but they were virtually absent in spleen and in superficial CLNs and inguinal LNs until Day 21 after lesion/injection. In whole-head sections, GFP monocytes were found attached to the olfactory nerves and located within the nasal mucosa at 48 hpi. Thus, mono-cytes are capable of migrating from lesioned brain areas to deep CLNs and use the cribriform plate as an exit route. © Society for Leukocyte Biology. Source

Radojcic B.,Institute of Child and Adolescent Health Care of Vojvodina | Grebeldinger S.,Institute of Child and Adolescent Health Care of Vojvodina | Cigic T.,Clinic for Neurosurgery | Meljnikov I.,Institute of Child and Adolescent Health Care of Vojvodina | Radojcic N.,General Hospital
HealthMED | Year: 2011

Introduction: Suspected acute appendicitis is the most common reason for urgent laparotomy in children. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis still remains a controversy, especially in pediatric patients. The aim of study is evaluation of the existing representative score systems in diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The ultimate goal is prospective validation of original Neoplanta score and it's testing on a sample of pediatric patients. Material and methods: Prospective clinical study was conducted between October 1 st 2008 to January1 st, 2010 in tertiary Children Hospital. One hundred fifty pediatric patients with acute abdominal pain and symptoms of acute appendicitis were included. The study evaluated the value of the different score system and their result did not effect the indicated operative treatment. The results of clinical, laboratory and ultrasound examination were analyzed and compared with the course of disease. The validity of the representative score system in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was tested at all patients (Alvarado, Madan Samuels, Lintula, Ohman, Eskelinen, Christian, Tzanakis, Neoplanta). For each score individually the groups of patients with low and high risk of developing acute appendicitis were isolated and compared with the clinical course of the disease. Results: By evaluating the diagnostic signif-cance, the data obtained in our sample showed high predictivity in Neoplanta, Ohman, Lintula, Eskeli-nen and Tzanakis scores. The worst prediction of appendicitis shows Madan Samuels For the correct prediction of positive obligate appendicitis, a series of diagnostic scores are as follows: Neoplanta- Lin-tula-Ohman-AIRS-Alvarado-Tzanakis. For the negative prediction points to the following schedule: Neoplanta- Lintula-Ohman. Neoplanta appendicitis score defined three test zones: without appendicitis (0-4), possible appendicitis (5-7) and appendicitis (8-11). Prospective evaluation of Neoplanta score showed sensitivity 0,915, specificity 1, positive predictive value 0,977 and negative predictive value 1. Conclusion: Neoplanta score improves the diagnosis of acute appendicitis selecting a high-risk group of patients who need operative treatment and avoid negative appendectomy in pediatric patients. Source

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