Hannover, Germany
Hannover, Germany

Time filter

Source Type

Gohlke A.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Ingelmann C.J.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Nurnberg G.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Weitzel J.M.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Quercetin has been shown to be a potent antioxidant, acts hepatoprotectively, and affects glucose and lipid metabolism in monogastrics. If this is also true in ruminants, quercetin could be beneficial in periparturient high-yielding dairy cows by ameliorating the negative effects of free radical formation and reducing the severity of liver lipidosis and ketosis. In a first attempt to evaluate effects of a long-term quercetin treatment, we intraduodenally administered twice daily 18. mg of quercetin (Q)/kg of body weight to 5 late-lactation (215. d in milk) dairy cows over a period of 28. d. Frequent blood samples were taken before and during administration to determine plasma concentrations of flavonols and metabolites. Before and after 1 and 4. wk of Q administration, glycogen and fat content as well as mRNA expression of selected genes were measured in liver biopsies. Furthermore, euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic clamp studies were conducted before and after 2. wk of Q administration. During the experiment, dry matter intake and most other zootechnical data remained unchanged. Milk protein content was increased in wk 2 and 4 of Q administration compared with basal values, whereas fat and lactose contents of milk remained unchanged. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, γ-glutamyl transferase, cholesterol, glutamate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and albumin concentrations, as well as liver fat and glycogen concentrations, were not affected by Q supplementation. Plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in plasma decreased and increased, respectively, under the influence of quercetin. During hyperglycemic clamp conditions, the relative increase of plasma insulin was higher after 2. wk of Q administration, and a tendency for an increased rQUICKI (revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) was observed. The relative mRNA expression levels of selected genes related to glucose metabolism, fat metabolism, and antioxidative status were not altered after 1 or 4. wk of Q supplementation. In conclusion, the effects on insulin release and sensitivity support the assumption that administration of Q could have positive effects on the metabolic adaption of high-yielding cows to early lactation. The increase of milk protein content in response to Q supplementation needs to be verified. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Von Soosten D.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Meyer U.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Piechotta M.,Clinic for Cattle | Flachowsky G.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Danicke S.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of trans-10,. cis-12 and cis-9,. trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, mobilization or accretion of body fat and protein mass, as well as the energy metabolism of dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). For this purpose, a comparative slaughter experiment was conducted with 25 primiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment started at 1 DIM with the slaughter of 5 animals of an initial group receiving no CLA supplement. The remaining animals were fed a CLA supplement (n = 10) or a stearic acid-based control fat supplement (CON; n = 10) from 1 DIM up to slaughter. After 42 DIM, 5 more cows from each treatment (42-CLA and 42-CON) were slaughtered. The remaining 5 cows in each treatment were slaughtered after 105 DIM (105-CLA and 105-CON). The animals of the CLA groups consumed 6.0. g/d of trans-10,. cis-12 CLA and 5.7. g/d of cis-9,. trans-11 CLA. During the slaughter process, the empty body mass was recorded and partitioned into 9 fractions (meat, bone, offal, hide, mammary gland, retroperitoneal fat, omental fat, mesenteric fat, and s.c. fat). The fractions were analyzed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, and ash to calculate the body composition of the empty body mass at the different slaughter times. The principle of the comparative slaughter technique was applied to estimate body fat or protein mobilization and accretion in the viewed periods from 1 DIM until 42 and 105 DIM. The heat production (HP) was calculated by subtracting the energy in milk and energy changes in body mass from the metabolizable energy intake. The body composition was not affected by CLA supplementation. However, the mobilization of body fat mass from 1 until 42 DIM was 24.1. kg in the 42-CON group and 14.3. kg in the 42-CLA group. This resulted in a trend to lower body mass (fat and protein) mobilization of 10.5. kg in the 42-CLA group. Energy mobilization from body mass was 21.2 MJ/d in the 42-CON and 11.5 MJ/d in the 42-CLA group. The HP was unchanged for the 42-CON and 42-CLA group with 123.0 and 116.9 MJ/d, respectively. From 1 until 105 DIM, the protein accretion was 4.3. kg and the daily energy retention in body protein was 1.0 MJ higher for CLA-supplemented cows. The HP was decreased in this period for the 105-CLA group (115.5 MJ/d) as compared with the 105-CON group (125.9 MJ/d). Overall, the trend for a decreased body mass mobilization suggested a protective effect of CLA supplementation against excessive use of body reserves within 42 DIM. Continuous CLA supplementation until 105 DIM increased protein accretion. The effects on body mass mobilization and protein accretion in combination with the decreased HP in the CLA-fed cows suggested a more efficient utilization of metabolizable energy in CLA-supplemented early lactation dairy cows. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Remling N.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Hachenberg S.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Meyer U.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Holtershinken M.,Clinic for Cattle | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Animal Nutrition | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the potential methane reducer fumaric acid on the fattening performance and acid-base balance of growing bulls fed two different silage types as roughage (maize and grass silage). A total of 62 fattening bulls (German Holstein breed, initial body weight: 266 ± 42 kg), randomly assigned to eight feeding groups, received four levels of fumaric acid (0, 100, 200 or 300 g/d) at each silage type. The daily feed and water intake and the live weight were measured over the whole testing period of 280 days. In blood samples, blood cells and blood gases as a parameter of acid-base status were analysed. Feed and faeces were collected to determine the apparent nutrient digestibility. Five animals from each group fed maize or grass silage, supplemented with 0 g or 300 g fumaric acid, were slaughtered at 580 kg body weight. After slaughter, rumen fluid pH was measured and dressing percentage was calculated. Neither the total feed intake (8.81 ± 0.07 kg/d) nor the daily weight gain (1277±24 g/d) was influenced significantly by treatments. Fumaric acid supplementation did not influence the erythrocyte count or the blood gas concentration. The silage type significantly influenced the apparent digestibility of the whole diet. The dressing percentage was slightly higher (p < 0.1) after fumaric acid supplementation. No signs of an incompatibility to fumaric acid on the animals were observed over the whole experimental period. However, it seems to be necessary to conduct more long-term studies with different silage types and addition of organic acids combined with direct measurements of methane. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Akter S.H.,University of Bonn | Haussler S.,University of Bonn | Danicke S.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Muller U.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lactation and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on adipocyte sizes of subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral (VC) fat depots in primiparous dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). German Holstein heifers (n=25) were divided into a control (CON) and a CLA group. From 1 DIM until sample collection, CLA cows were fed 100g of CLA supplement/d (about 6% of c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers each), whereas the CON cows received 100g of fatty acid mixture/d instead of CLA. The CON cows (n=5 each) were slaughtered at 1, 42, and 105 DIM, and the CLA cows (n=5 each) were slaughtered at 42 and 105 DIM. Adipose tissues from 3s.c. depots (tailhead, withers, and sternum) and from 3 VC depots (omental, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal) were sampled. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was done to measure adipocyte area (μm2). Retroperitoneal adipocyte sizes were mostly larger than adipocytes from the other sites, independent of lactation time and treatment. Significant changes related to duration of lactation were limited to retroperitoneal fat: adipocyte sizes were significantly smaller at 105 DIM than at 1 DIM in CON cows. Adipocyte sizes were decreased in s.c. depots from the tailhead at 105 DIM and from the sternum at 42 DIM in CLA versus CON cows, whereas for VC depots, adipocyte sizes were decreased in mesenteric fat at 42 and 105 DIM, and in omental and retroperitoneal fat, at 105 DIM in CLA versus CON cows. Within the CLA group, adipocyte sizes were smaller in the s.c. depot from the tailhead at 105 DIM than at 42 DIM. Adipocyte sizes and depot weights were significantly correlated in s.c. depots (r=0.795) in the CLA group and in retroperitoneal fat both in the CON (r=0.698) and the CLA (r=0.723) group. In conclusion, CLA-induced decreases in adipocyte size indicate lipolytic or antilipogenic effects of CLA, or both effects, on adipose tissue in primiparous dairy cows. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.


Loholter M.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Meyer U.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Rauls C.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Rehage J.,Clinic for Cattle | Danicke S.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition
Archives of Animal Nutrition | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of niacin and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk production of dairy cows. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 20 primiparous Holstein cows (179 ± 12 days in milk) were assigned to four dietary treatments aimed to receive either 0 or 24 g niacin and 30% (low) or 60% (high) concentrate with the rest being a partial mixed ration (PMR) composed of 60% corn and 40% grass silage (on dry matter basis). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were determined and combined by the calculation of temperature humidity index. Respiration rates, rectal, skin and subcutaneous temperatures were measured. Milk production and composition were determined. Ruminal pH and temperature were recorded at a frequency of 5 min using wireless devices for continuous intra-ruminal measurement (boluses). pH values were corrected for pH sensor drift. The climatic conditions varied considerably but temporarily indicated mild heat stress. Niacin did not affect skin, rectal and subcutaneous temperatures but tended to increase respiration rates. High concentrate reduced skin temperatures at rump, thigh and neck by 0.1-0.3°C. Due to the technical disturbances, not all bolus data could be subjected to statistical evaluation. However, both niacin and high concentrate influenced mean ruminal pH. High concentrate increased the time spent with a pH below 5.6 and ruminal temperatures (0.2-0.3°C). Niacin and high concentrate enhanced milk, protein and lactose yield but reduced milk fat and protein content. Milk fat yield was slightly reduced by high concentrate but increased due to niacin supplementation. In conclusion, niacin did not affect body temperature but stimulated milk performance. High concentrate partially influenced body temperatures and had beneficial effects on milk production. © 2013 Copyright © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


von Soosten D.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Meyer U.,German Institute of Animal Nutrition | Weber E.M.,Clinic for Cattle | Rehage J.,Clinic for Cattle | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

In feeding practice, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used to decrease milk fat excretion in early-lactation dairy cows to save energy to counteract the physiological negative energy balance. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of CLA on energy metabolism, changes in liver weight, and the weight of different adipose depots during early lactation. Primiparous lactating German Holstein cows (n = 25) were divided into 5 groups and each group contained 5 animals. The experiment started 21 d prepartum and continued until 105 d in milk (DIM). Cows were slaughtered at 1, 42, and 105 DIM. The experiment was divided into a prepartum period (21 d prepartum until calving), period 1 (1 until 42 DIM), and period 2 (>42 until 105 DIM). In the prepartum period, all animals were housed together and fed the same diet with no CLA supplementation. At 1 DIM, an initial group, with no CLA supplementation, was slaughtered. The 20 remaining cows were assigned to 2 diets. One group received 100. g/d of a control fat supplement (CON; n = 10) and the other group 100. g/d of a CLA supplement (CLA; n = 10) from 1 DIM until slaughter. Five cows of each feeding group were slaughtered after 42 DIM and the remaining animals after 105 DIM. The CLA supplement contained approximately 10% each of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA. During the slaughter process the empty body weight was recorded and the omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and s.c. adipose depots, as well as the liver, were dissected and weighed. The CLA treatment decreased milk fat content in period 1 (14.1%). In period 2, milk fat content (25.4%) and yield (17.1%) were lower in the CLA group. No effect of CLA on milk yield was observed. The net energy intake, milk energy output, and the calculated energy balance remained unchanged by CLA supplementation. No effect of CLA on the weights of liver, omental, mesenteric, or s.c. adipose depots was observed when related to empty body weight. Liver weight increased with DIM, whereas the retroperitoneal adipose depot weight decreased at the same time. Compared with the initial group, the retroperitoneal adipose depot weight for control animals slaughtered after 42 DIM was decreased (47.7%); however, for the CLA group slaughtered after 42 DIM, a trend to a lower retroperitoneal adipose depot weight (34.0%) was observed. This suggests a CLA-induced deceleration of mobilization of the retroperitoneal adipose depot during the first 42 DIM. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.


Honnens A.,Clinic for Cattle | Weisser S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Welter H.,TU Munich | Einspanier R.,Free University of Berlin | Bollwein H.,Clinic for Cattle
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between uterine perfusion and estrogen, progesterone and the uterine nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system in five trotter mares during the estrous cycle. Color Doppler sonography for measurement of uterine blood flow and collection of blood for determination of plasma estrogen and progesterone concentrations were performed on days 0 (= ovulation), 1, 5, 11 and 15 and daily during estrus (days -1 to -4) of one estrous cycle; endometrial biopsy collection for mRNA expression analysis of NOS and estrogen receptors was performed on days 0, 1, 5, 11, 15 and -3. Blood flow in each uterine artery was assessed by calculating the mean time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV) and the pulsatility index (PI). Plasma concentrations of estrogen and progesterone were determined using specific enzyme immunoassays. The mRNA expressions of endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) as well as estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) were quantified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The TAMV and PI had a biphasic pattern during the estrous cycle (P<0.05), with maximum and minimum, respectively, values on days 5 and -4. Estrogen receptor mRNA concentrations increased sigsnificantly during days 15 (ERα) and -3 (ERβ). Transcript expression of eNOS, but not iNOS, had a biphasic pattern during the cycle (P<0.05) with maximum levels on days 5 and -3 and correlated positively with TAMV (r=0.81, P=0.05). We infer that the uterine NOS system, especially eNOS, plays an important role in the regulation of uterine blood flow during the estrous cycle in mares. © 2011 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.


Bollwein H.,Clinic for Cattle | Prost D.,Clinic for Cattle | Prost D.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Ulbrich S.E.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the length of the preovulatory phase on genital blood flow and mRNA expression of endometrial hormone receptors in cattle (Bos Taurus). Ovulation was synchronized in 50 Holstein-Friesian cows using a modified Ovsynch (ovulation synchronization) protocol, in which the second gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration was given 40 h (G40, n = 17) or 60 h (G60, n = 16) after the prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) administration. The third group (S, n = 17) did not receive a second GnRH administration. Transrectal color Doppler examinations were carried out 24 h before (Day -1) and on Day 7 after ovulation (Day 0). Follicular size (FS) and luteal size (CLS) were quantified by measuring the areas of these structures on cross-sectional B-mode ultrasound images. Follicular blood flow (FB) and luteal blood flow (CLB) were quantified by determining the colored areas of these structures. Uterine blood flow was measured using the time-averaged maximum velocities (TAMVs) and the pulsatility indices (PIs) of both uterine arteries. Endometrial mRNA transcript abundance of estrogen receptors α and β as well as oxytocin and progesterone receptor were determined on Days -1 and 7 in G40 and G60 cows. In all cows, plasma progesterone (P4) values were measured on Day 7. On Day -1, FS and FB values were lower (P ≤ 0.05) in G40 cows compared with those in S cows but did not differ (P > 0.05) between G60 cows on the one hand and G40 cows and S cows, respectively, on the other hand. On Day 7, CLS and P4 did not differ (P > 0.05) between cows of Groups G40, G60, and S; CLB was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in G40 cows than in G60 and S cows, but no difference (P > 0.05) occurred between G60 and S cows. The uterine TAMV and PI values did not differ among the three groups (P > 0.05). Gene expression of hormone receptors did not differ (P > 0.05) between Groups G40 and G60 on Days -1 and 7. Results of this study indicate that a shortened preovulatory follicle phase primarily affects ovarian but not the measured uterine events in cows undergoing synchronization of ovulation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Clinic for Cattle
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of reproduction and development | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between uterine perfusion and estrogen, progesterone and the uterine nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system in five trotter mares during the estrous cycle. Color Doppler sonography for measurement of uterine blood flow and collection of blood for determination of plasma estrogen and progesterone concentrations were performed on days 0 (= ovulation), 1, 5, 11 and 15 and daily during estrus (days -1 to -4) of one estrous cycle; endometrial biopsy collection for mRNA expression analysis of NOS and estrogen receptors was performed on days 0, 1, 5, 11, 15 and -3. Blood flow in each uterine artery was assessed by calculating the mean time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV) and the pulsatility index (PI). Plasma concentrations of estrogen and progesterone were determined using specific enzyme immunoassays. The mRNA expressions of endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) as well as estrogen receptors (ER) and (ER) were quantified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The TAMV and PI had a biphasic pattern during the estrous cycle (P<0.05), with maximum and minimum, respectively, values on days 5 and -4. Estrogen receptor mRNA concentrations increased significantly during days 15 (ER) and -3 (ER). Transcript expression of eNOS, but not iNOS, had a biphasic pattern during the cycle (P<0.05) with maximum levels on days 5 and -3 and correlated positively with TAMV (r=0.81, P=0.05). We infer that the uterine NOS system, especially eNOS, plays an important role in the regulation of uterine blood flow during the estrous cycle in mares.


PubMed | Free University of Berlin, Clinic for Cattle and Hannover University of Applied Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

Machine milking-induced alterations of teat tissue may impair local defense mechanisms and increase the risk of new intramammary infections. The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of short-term and long-term alterations of teat tissue and infectious status of the udder quarter on the risk of naturally occurring new intramammary infections, inflammatory responses, and mastitis. Short-term and long-term changes in teat condition of right udder quarters of 135 cows of a commercial dairy farm in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, were recorded monthly for 10 mo using simple classification schemes. Quarter milk samples were collected from all examined quarters at each farm visit. Bacteriological culture results and somatic cell counts of quarter milk samples were used to determine new inflammatory responses (increase from 100,000 cells/mL to >100,000 cells/mL between 2 samples), new infections (detection of a pathogen from a quarter that was free of the same pathogen at the preceding sampling), and new mastitis (combination of new inflammatory response and new infection). Separate Poisson mixed models for new inflammatory responses, new infections, and new mastitis caused by specific pathogens or groups of pathogens (contagious, environmental, major, minor, or any) were used to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Data preparation and parameter estimation were performed using the open source statistical analysis software R. We observed no effect of any variable describing teat condition on the risk of new intramammary infections, inflammatory responses, or mastitis. Intramammary infections of the same udder quarter in the preceding month did not affect risk either.

Loading Clinic for Cattle collaborators
Loading Clinic for Cattle collaborators