PubMed | Helmholtz Center Munich, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Auckland University of Technology, Tel Aviv University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) is the cardinal symptom of fibromyalgia and affects about 12% of the general population. Familial aggregation of CWP has been repeatedly demonstrated with estimated heritabilities of around 50%, indicating a genetic susceptibility. The objective of the study was to explore genome-wide disease-differentially methylated positions (DMPs) for chronic widespread pain (CWP) in a sample of unrelated individuals and a subsample of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins.A total of N = 281 twin individuals from the TwinsUK registry, including N = 33 MZ twins discordant for self-reported CWP, were part of the discovery sample. The replication sample included 729 men and 756 women from a subsample of the KORA S4 survey-an independent population-based cohort from Southern Germany. Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was conducted using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 DNA BeadChip in both the discovery and replication sample. Of our 40 main loci that were carried forward for replication, three CPGs reached significant p-values in the replication sample, including malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2; p-value 0.017), tetranectin (CLEC3B; p-value 0.039), and heat shock protein beta-6 (HSPB6; p-value 0.016). The associations between the collagen type I, alpha 2 chain (COL1A2) and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) observed in the discovery sample-both of which have been previously reported to be biological candidates for pain-could not be replicated.Our results may serve as a starting point to encourage further investigation in large and independent population-based cohorts of DNA methylation and other epigenetic changes as possible disease mechanisms in CWP. Ultimately, understanding the key mechanisms underlying CWP may lead to new treatments and inform clinical practice.
PubMed | Clinic Barmelweid, University College London and North West University South Africa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: VASA. Zeitschrift fur Gefasskrankheiten | Year: 2015
Low levels of testosterone in men and changes in retinal microvascular calibre are both associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk. Sex hormones are also associated with blood flow in microvascular beds which might be a key intermediate mechanism in the development of hypertension. Whether a direct association between endogenous testosterone and retinal microvascular calibre exists is currently unknown. We aimed to determine whether testosterone is independently associated with ocular perfusion via a possible association with retinal vascular calibre or whether it plays only a secondary role via its effect on blood pressure in a bi-ethnic male cohort.A total of 72 black and 81 white men (28-68 years of age) from the follow-up phase of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study were included in this sub-study. Ambulatory pulse pressure and intraocular perfusion pressures were obtained, while metabolic variables and testosterone were measured from fasting venous blood samples. Retinal vascular calibre was quantified from digital photographs using standardised protocols.The black men revealed a poorer cardiometabolic profile and higher pulsatile pressure (>50 mm Hg), intraocular pressure and diastolic ocular perfusion pressure than the white men (p0.05). Only in the white men was free testosterone positively associated with retinal calibre, i.e. arterio-venular ratio and central retinal arterial calibre and inversely with central retinal venular calibre. These associations were not found in the black men, independent of whether pulse pressure and ocular perfusion pressure were part of the model.These results suggest an independent, protective effect of testosterone on the retinal vasculature where an apparent vasodilatory response in the retinal resistance microvessels was observed in white men.
Mensen A.,Clinic Barmelweid |
Poryazova R.,University of Zürich |
Schwartz S.,University of Geneva |
Khatami R.,Clinic Barmelweid
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Humor processing involves distinct processing stages including incongruity detection, emotional response, and engagement of mesolimbic reward regions. Dysfunctional reward processing and clinical symptoms in response to humor have been previously described in both hypocretin deficient narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) and in idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). For NC patients, humor is the strongest trigger for cataplexy, a transient loss of muscle tone, whereas dopamine-deficient PD-patients show blunted emotional responses to humor. To better understand the role of reward system and the various contributions of hypocretinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms to different stages of humor processing we examined the electrophysiological response to humorous and neutral pictures when given as reward feedback in PD, NC and healthy controls. Humor compared to neutral feedback demonstrated modulation of early ERP amplitudes likely corresponding to visual processing stages, with no group differences. At 270 ms post-feedback, conditions showed topographical and amplitudinal differences for frontal and left posterior electrodes, in that humor feedback was absent in PD patients but increased in NC patients. We suggest that this effect relates to a relatively early affective response, reminiscent of increased amygdala response reported in NC patients. Later ERP differences, corresponding to the late positive potential, revealed a lack of sustained activation in PD, likely due to altered dopamine regulation in reward structures in these patients. This research provides new insights into the temporal dynamics and underlying mechanisms of humor detection and appreciation in health and disease. © 2014 Mensen et al.
PubMed | University of Zürich, Clinic Barmelweid and University of Geneva
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
The proper functioning of the mesolimbic reward system is largely dependent on the neurotransmitter dopamine. Recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system has significant projections to this reward system. We examined the distinct effects of reduced dopamine or reduced hypocretin levels on reward activity in patients with Parkinsons disease, dopamine deficient, as well as patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy, hypocretin depleted, and healthy controls. Participants performed a simple game-like task while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Topography and timing of event-related potentials for both reward cue, and reward feedback was examined across the entire dataset. While response to reward cue was similar in all groups, two distinct time points were found to distinguish patients and controls for reward feedback. Around 160 ms both patient groups had reduced ERP amplitude compared to controls. Later at 250 ms, both patient groups also showed a clear event-related potential (ERP), which was absent in controls. The initial differences show that both patient groups show a similar, blunted response to reward delivery. The second potential corresponds to the classic feedback-related negativity (FRN) potential which relies on dopamine activity and reflects reward prediction-error signaling. In particular the mismatch between predicted reward and reward subsequently received was significantly higher in PD compared to NC, independent of reward magnitude and valence. The intermediate FRN response in NC highlights the contribution of hypocretin in reward processing, yet also shows that this is not as detrimental to the reward system as in Parkinsons. Furthermore, the inability to generate accurate predictions in NC may explain why hypocretin deficiency mediates cataplexy triggered by both positive and negative emotions.
Sievi N.A.,University of Zürich |
Senn O.,University of Zürich |
Brack T.,Cantonal Hospital of Glarus |
Brutsche M.H.,Cantonal Hospital of St Gallen |
And 7 more authors.
Respirology | Year: 2015
Background and objective Both comorbidities and physical inactivity have been shown to impair quality of life and contribute to hospital admissions and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We hypothesized that the comorbid status predicts the level of daily physical activity (PA) in COPD. Methods In 228 patients with COPD (76% men; median (quartiles) age: 64 (59/69) years; percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1% pred): 44 (31/63)), comorbidities were assessed by medical history, clinical interviews, examination and blood analysis. PA level (PAL) was measured by an activity monitor (SenseWear Pro, Bodymedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA). The association between PAL and comorbidities was investigated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results Seventy-nine per cent of the COPD patients had at least one additional chronic comorbidity, 56% had two or more comorbidities and 35% had three or more comorbidities. In univariate analysis body mass index, the number of pack years and having at least one additional comorbidity was negatively associated with PAL while there was a positive nonlinear association between FEV1 and PAL. The presence of at least one additional comorbidity was independently associated with PAL irrespective of airflow limitation. Conclusions In this cohort, almost 80% of COPD patients had at least one additional chronic comorbidity. The level of daily PA seems to be significantly impaired by the presence of comorbidities irrespective of the type of comorbidity and independent of the degree of airflow limitation. copy; 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
PubMed | Psymeta GmbH, University of Bern and Clinic Barmelweid
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
Low vitamin D levels have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies and non-clinical samples as well as with clinical depression. This study aimed to examine the association of vitamin D levels with the severity and dimensions of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression taking into account confounding variables.We investigated 380 patients (mean age 47 12 years, 70% women) who were consecutively hospitalized with a main diagnosis of an ICD-10 depressive episode. All patients self-rated depressive symptom severity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A principal component analysis was performed with all 34 items of these questionnaires and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D) were measured.Vitamin D deficiency (< 50 nmol/l), insufficiency (50-75 nmol/l), and sufficiency (> 75 nmol/l) were present in 55.5%, 31.8% and 12.6%, respectively, of patients. Patients with vitamin D deficiency scored higher on the HADS-D scale and on an anhedonia symptom factor than those with insufficient (p-values 0.023) or sufficient (p-values 0.008) vitamin D. Vitamin D deficient patients also scored higher on the BDI-II scale than those with sufficient vitamin D (p = 0.007); BDI-II cognitive/affective symptoms, but not somatic/affective symptoms, were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.005) and insufficiency (p = 0.041) relative to those with sufficient vitamin D. Effect sizes suggested clinically relevant findings.Low vitamin D levels are frequent in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression. Especially 25-OH D levels < 50 nmol/l were associated with cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, and anhedonia symptoms in particular.
PubMed | Hohenklinik Wald, University of Zürich, Clinic Barmelweid and Insel Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of sleep research | Year: 2016
Due to extensive clinical and electrophysiological overlaps, the correct diagnosis of disorders with excessive daytime sleepiness is often challenging. The aim of this study was to provide diagnostic measures that help discriminating such disorders, and to identify parameters, which dont. In this single-center study, we retrospectively identified consecutive treatment-nave patients who suffered from excessive daytime sleepiness, and analyzed clinical and electrophysiological measures in those patients in whom a doubtless final diagnosis could be made. Of 588 patients, 287 reported subjective excessive daytime sleepiness. Obstructive sleep apnea is the only disorder that could be identified by polysomnography alone. The diagnosis of insufficient sleep syndrome relies on actigraphy as patients underestimate their sleep need and the disorder shares several clinical and electrophysiological properties with both narcolepsy type 1 and idiopathic hypersomnia. Sleep stage sequencing on MSLT appears helpful to discriminate between insufficient sleep syndrome and narcolepsy. Sleep inertia is a strong indicator for idiopathic hypersomnia. There are no distinctive electrophysiological findings for the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome. Altogether, EDS disorders are common in neurological sleep laboratories, but usually cannot be diagnosed based on PSG and MSLT findings alone. The diagnostic value of actigraphy recordings can hardly be overestimated.
Mensen A.,Clinic Barmelweid |
Gorban C.,Clinic Barmelweid |
Gorban C.,University of Zürich |
Niklaus M.,Clinic Barmelweid |
And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a popular tool to modulate neuronal networks and associated brain functions in both clinical and basic research. Yet few studies have examined the potential effects of cortical stimulation on general levels of vigilance. In this exploratory study, we used theta-burst protocols, both continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) patterns, to examine whether inhibition or excitation of the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) was able to induce reliable and acute changes to vigilance measures, compared to the left dorso-lateral associative visual cortex (dlAVC) as a control site in line with previous work. Partially sleep restricted participants underwent four separate sessions in a single day, in a between subjects design for TBS stimulation type and within subjects for locaton, each consisting of maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT), a sleep latency test, and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). TBS significantly affected measures of sleep consolidation, namely latency to sleep stage 2 and sleep efficiency, but had no effects on sleep drive or psychomotor vigilance levels for either TBS type or location. Contrary to our initial hypothesis of the dlAVC as a control site, stimulation to this region resulted in the largest differential effects between stimulation types. Moreover, the effect of TBS was found to be consistent throughout the day. These data may provide the basis for further investigation into therapeutic applications of TBS in sleep disorders. © 2014 Mensen, Gorban, Niklaus, Kuske and Khatami.
Kuebler U.,University of Zürich |
Zuccarella-Hackl C.,University of Bern |
Arpagaus A.,University of Zürich |
Wolf J.M.,Brandeis University |
And 6 more authors.
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity | Year: 2015
Acute psychosocial stress stimulates transient increases in circulating pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines, but little is known about stress effects on anti-inflammatory cytokines or underlying mechanisms. We investigated the stress kinetics and interrelations of pro- and anti-inflammatory measures on the transcriptional and protein level. Forty-five healthy men were randomly assigned to either a stress or control group. While the stress group underwent an acute psychosocial stress task, the second group participated in a non-stress control condition. We repeatedly measured before and up to 120. min after stress DNA binding activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whole-blood mRNA levels of NF-κB, its inhibitor IκBα, and of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We also repeatedly measured plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-10.Compared to non-stress, acute stress induced significant and rapid increases in NF-κB-BA and delayed increases in plasma IL-6 and mRNA of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IκBα (p's < .045). In the stress group, significant increases over time were also observed for NF-κB mRNA and plasma IL-1ß and IL-10 (p's < .055). NF-κB-BA correlated significantly with mRNA of IL-1β (r = .52, p = .002), NF-κB (r = .48, p = .004), and IκBα (r = .42, p = .013), and marginally with IL-6 mRNA (r = .31, p = .11). Plasma cytokines did not relate to NF-κB-BA or mRNA levels of the respective cytokines.Our data suggest that stress induces increases in NF-κB-BA that relate to subsequent mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory, but not anti-inflammatory cytokines, and of regulatory-cytoplasmic-proteins. The stress-induced increases in plasma cytokines do not seem to derive from de novo synthesis in circulating blood cells. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
PubMed | Research in Respiratory Diagnostics, University of Bern and Clinic Barmelweid
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Respiratory research | Year: 2016
There are few studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of different lung function parameters evaluating dose-response characteristics of methacholine (MCH) challenge tests (MCT) as quantitative outcome of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in asthmatic patients. The aim of this retrospectively analysis of our database (Clinic Barmelweid, Switzerland) was, to assess diagnostic accuracy of several lung function parameters quantitating AHR by dose-response characteristics.Changes in effective specific airway conductance (sGIn the assessment of AHR, whole-body plethysmography offers in addition to spirometry indices of airways conductance and thoracic lung volumes, which are incorporated in the parameter sGApplying plethysmographic tidal breathing analysis in addition to spirometry in MCTs provides relevant advantages. The absence of deep and maximal inhalations and forced expiratory manoeuvres improve the subjects cooperation and coordination, and provide sensitive and differentiated test results, improving diagnostic accuracy. Moreover, by the combined assessment, pulmonary hyperinflation and dysanapsis can be respected in the differentiation between asthmatics and non-asthmatics.