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Ogle S.M.,Colorado State University | Olander L.,Duke University | Wollenberg L.,University of Vermont | Rosenstock T.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | And 5 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

Agriculture in developing countries has attracted increasing attention in international negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for both adaptation to climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation. However, there is limited understanding about potential complementarity between management practices that promote adaptation and mitigation, and limited basis to account for greenhouse gas emission reductions in this sector. The good news is that the global research community could provide the support needed to address these issues through further research linking adaptation and mitigation. In addition, a small shift in strategy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ongoing assistance from agricultural organizations could produce a framework to move the research and development from concept to reality. In turn, significant progress is possible in the near term providing the basis for UNFCCC negotiations to move beyond discussion to action for the agricultural sector in developing countries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Kalabokidis K.,University of Aegean | Xanthopoulos G.,Greek National Agricultural Research Foundation | Moore P.,Climate | Caballero D.,Tecnoma S.A | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

This paper describes the development of a decision support system (DSS) for prevention planning and emergency management of forest fire events that incorporates weather data management, a geographical data viewer, a priori danger forecasting and fire propagation modeling, automatic fire detection, and optimal resource dispatching. Collection, input, storage, management, and analysis of the information rely on advanced and automated methodologies using remote sensing, GPS, digital mapping, and geographic information systems. The results included short-term dynamic fire danger indices developed for improved and realistic prevention and pre-suppression planning. An automatic fire detection technology based on infrared video was developed and successfully tested on site. Several models for understanding fire propagation on forest fires have been proposed for practical application. Additionally, a DSS was developed with the innovation of covering wildland fire hazard management entirely, providing a complete coverage of technical and administrative activities that support decision makers in real time. The DSS was tested for high fire seasons in two different sites in South Europe. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Durbin J.,Climate | Funk S.M.,Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust | Hawkins R.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Hills D.M.,Natural History Museum in London | And 3 more authors.
Systematics and Biodiversity | Year: 2010

Evidence is presented from morphological observations, multivariate and molecular analyses on the taxonomic status of specimens of Salanoia newly discovered at Lac Alaotra, Madagascar, which resemble but are phenotypically highly divergent from the monotypic species S. concolor. A detailed comparative description is provided, together with information on the ecology of the region. Principal Component and Canonical Variate Analyses of craniodental morphometrics revealed high divergence supporting the status of a new species. Conversely, genetic distances from S. concolor based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b locus are small, not supporting new species status. A literature review indicates that some accepted species also exhibit low genetic distances at cytochrome b, which might be caused by rapid recent evolution, hybridization or introgression of mtDNA between lineages that otherwise might be genetically more distinct. Conflicting information from the analyses is discussed. Adaptation to highly divergent habitats might account for phenotypic plasticity, but the observed morphological difference is sufficiently great that the formal description as a new species is warranted. The biodiversity of Lac Alaotra and the importance of conservation issues are highlighted in relation to this discovery. © 2010 The Natural History Museum.

Richards M.,Forest Trends | Panfil S.N.,Climate
International Forestry Review | Year: 2011

This paper describes some of the challenges of meeting standards for multiple benefit forest carbon and other land use based carbon projects. There is considerable current controversy about the social and equity impacts of such projects. The authors argue that a combination of more robust standards, such as the Climate Community and Biodiversity (CCB) Standards, for assessing the social performance of projects, and cost-effective impact assessment methods can do much to ensure positive outcomes for local people or communities, and greatly reduce the risk of negative ones. The paper is structured around the following main themes: what is meant by social impact assessment (SIA); a discussion of the requirements of the CCB Standards as regards SIA; key challenges to measuring the social impacts of land use based carbon projects; presentation of seven proposed SIA stages contained in a Manual for SIA released by four prominent non-governmental organisations; and some 'good practice'- principles for cost-effective SIA.

Olander L.P.,Duke University | Wollenberg E.,University of Vermont | Tubiello F.N.,Climate | Herold M.,Wageningen University
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2014

Reducing emissions of agricultural greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as methane and nitrous oxide, and sequestering carbon in the soil or in living biomass can help reduce the impact of agriculture on climate change while improving productivity and reducing resource use. There is an increasing demand for improved, low cost quantification of GHGs in agriculture, whether for national reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), underpinning and stimulating improved practices, establishing crediting mechanisms, or supporting green products. This ERL focus issue highlights GHG quantification to call attention to our existing knowledge and opportunities for further progress. In this article we synthesize the findings of 21 papers on the current state of global capability for agricultural GHG quantification and visions for its improvement. We conclude that strategic investment in quantification can lead to significant global improvement in agricultural GHG estimation in the near term. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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