Nowack B.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology |
David R.M.,BASF |
Fissan H.,Institute Of Energy And Environmental Technology Iuta E V |
Morris H.,Safe Work Australia |
And 4 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2013
The expected widespread use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-composites in consumer products calls for an assessment of the possible release and exposure to workers, consumers and the environment. Release of CNTs may occur at all steps in the life cycle of products, but to date only limited information is available about release of CNTs from actual products and articles. As a starting point for exposure assessment, exploring sources and pathways of release helps to identify relevant applications and situations where the environment and especially humans may encounter releases of CNTs. It is the aim of this review to identify various potential release scenarios for CNTs used in polymers and identify the greatest likelihood of release at the various stages throughout the life-cycle of the product. The available information on release of CNTs from products and articles is reviewed in a first part. In a second part nine relevant release scenarios are described in detail: injection molding, manufacturing, sports equipment, electronics, windmill blades, fuel system components, tires, textiles, incineration, and landfills. Release from products can potentially occur by two pathways; (a) where free CNTs are released directly, or more frequently (b) where the initial release is a particle with CNTs embedded in the matrix, potentially followed by the subsequent release of CNTs from the matrix. The potential for release during manufacturing exists for all scenarios, however, this is also the situation when exposure can be best controlled. For most of the other life cycle stages and their corresponding release scenarios, potential release of CNTs can be considered to be low, but it cannot be excluded totally. Direct release to the environment is also considered to be very low for most scenarios except for the use of CNTs in tires where significant abrasion during use and release into the environment would occur. Also the possible future use of CNTs in textiles could result in consumer exposure. A possibility for significant release also exists during recycling operations when the polymers containing CNTs are handled together with other polymers and mainly occupational users would be exposed. It can be concluded that in general, significant release of CNTs from products and articles is unlikely except in manufacturing and subsequent processing, tires, recycling, and potentially in textiles. However except for high energy machining processes, most likely the resulting exposure for these scenarios will be low and to a non-pristine form of CNTs. Actual exposure studies, which quantify the amount of material released should be conducted to provide further evidence for this conclusion. © 2013 The Authors.
Tuccillo M.E.,Cadmus Group Inc. |
Boyd G.R.,Cadmus Group Inc. |
Sandvig A.,Cadmus Group Inc. |
Shatkin J.A.,CLF Ventures Inc. |
Dionysiou D.,University of Cincinnati
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2011 | Year: 2011
Among the emerging contaminants, nanomaterials pose special challenges in understanding their fate, transport, and potential for entry into drinking water systems. However, unlike other emerging contaminants, nanomaterials also offer the possibility of novel treatment technologies. This presentation summarizes the results of Water Research Foundation project #4311, which was geared towards providing drinking water utilities with information on a variety of technical issues associated with nanomaterials, including topics of interest to the drinking water community. Topics covered include background information on nanomaterials definitions and types, health effects, occurrence, fate and transport, detection and characterization, and emerging developments in potential uses for water treatment. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved.
Shatkin J.,CLF Ventures Inc. |
Larsen W.,CLF Ventures Inc.
Technical Proceedings of the 2011 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2011 | Year: 2011
Streamlined Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) is a pre-regulatory exercise that analyzes industrial processes and products to assess efficacy of existing production efforts and identify priorities for enhancing triple bottom line performance for product lines. SLCA includes aspects of standard Risk Assessment, Life Cycle Risk Assessment (LCRA), and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodologies. It also draws upon technical understanding of environmental management, health risk assessment, industrial ecology, energy management and real estate and business planning. Importantly, SLCA offers an effective high-level screening of key product design criteria that focuses subsequent deeper assessments, allowing for low cost and rapid product assessments built on LCA principles . This process can be especially useful when applied to nanomaterial product development since nanomaterials are not yet widely regulated and their impacts have not yet been widely studied. However the framework is effective for screening potential impacts and risks of various sectors at both the facility and individual product level.
Shatkin J.A.,CLF Ventures Inc
Nutrition Today | Year: 2012
Applications of nanotechnology are being explored for use in foods and as ingredients. The available studies are limited but raise concerns about the absorption of nanoparticles in the gut and the potential impacts on nutritional status. This article explains how nanotechnology is being used in food, reviews the state of the science, and explores issues that may raise concerns for nutrition. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Shatkin J.A.,CLF Ventures Inc |
Abbott L.C.,CLF Ventures Inc |
Bradley A.E.,CLF Ventures Inc |
Canady R.A.,CLF Ventures Inc |
And 6 more authors.
Risk Analysis | Year: 2010
Scientists, activists, industry, and governments have raised concerns about health and environmental risks of nanoscale materials. The Society for Risk Analysis convened experts in September 2008 in Washington, DC to deliberate on issues relating to the unique attributes of nanoscale materials that raise novel concerns about health risks. This article reports on the overall themes and findings of the workshop, uncovering the underlying issues for each of these topics that become recurring themes. The attributes of nanoscale particles and other nanomaterials that present novel issues for risk analysis are evaluated in a risk analysis framework, identifying challenges and opportunities for risk analysts and others seeking to assess and manage the risks from emerging nanoscale materials and nanotechnologies. Workshop deliberations and recommendations for advancing the risk analysis and management of nanotechnologies are presented. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.