Muehlenbein M.P.,Indiana University Bloomington |
Sakong R.,Red Ape Encounters |
Prall S.,Indiana University Bloomington |
Fuller G.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results in these wild habituated orangutans suggest that low levels of predictable disturbance can likely result in low physiological impact on these animals. © 2012 Muehlenbein et al.
Bauernfeind A.L.,George Washington University |
de Sousa A.A.,University of Coimbra |
Avasthi T.,George Washington University |
Dobson S.D.,Dartmouth College |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2013
The neuronal composition of the insula in primates displays a gradient, transitioning from granular neocortex in the posterior-dorsal insula to agranular neocortex in the anterior-ventral insula with an intermediate zone of dysgranularity. Additionally, apes and humans exhibit a distinctive subdomain in the agranular insula, the frontoinsular cortex (FI), defined by the presence of clusters of von Economo neurons (VENs). Studies in humans indicate that the ventral anterior insula, including agranular insular cortex and FI, is involved in social awareness, and that the posterodorsal insula, including granular and dysgranular cortices, produces an internal representation of the body's homeostatic state. We examined the volumes of these cytoarchitectural areas of insular cortex in 30 primate species, including the volume of FI in apes and humans. Results indicate that the whole insula scales hyperallometrically (exponent = 1.13) relative to total brain mass, and the agranular insula (including FI) scales against total brain mass with even greater positive allometry (exponent = 1.23), providing a potential neural basis for enhancement of social cognition in association with increased brain size. The relative volumes of the subdivisions of the insular cortex, after controlling for total brain volume, are not correlated with species typical social group size. Although its size is predicted by primate-wide allometric scaling patterns, we found that the absolute volume of the left and right agranular insula and left FI are among the most differentially expanded of the human cerebral cortex compared to our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
News Article | November 10, 2016
The Craft & Hobby Association (CHA) is pleased to announce the recipients of its 2017 Creative Industry Awards, recognizing excellence in industry service and philanthropy. This year’s honorees are Mark Peters, Duncan Enterprises; Therese Hennessy, The Honor Scrapbook; and ShurTech Brands. These individuals and organization were nominated by their CHA member peers and selected by the CHA Industry Awards Committee, which is comprised of CHA Board Members and member volunteers. “Mark, Therese and ShurTech Brands’ employees deserve credit where credit is due,” said Roseann Meehan Kermes, CHA Board Member and Industry Awards Committee Chair. “They have gone above and beyond to make our industry strong and find ways to better lives through their compassion for others.” The Meritorious Award is the highest honor that CHA bestows, and acknowledges an individual or group that has made a significant contribution to the Association and industry. This year’s recipient is Mark Peters. Mark Peters has 31 years of marketing, sales, and general management experience, and has been with Duncan Enterprises since 1993, leading both marketing and sales groups before becoming COO in 2006 and President in 2011. In addition to his industry service, Mark gave his time unconditionally to CHA Board and Committee work for over six years, finishing his career as an officer. Michael McCooey of Plaid Enterprises, who nominated Mark, described him as “a great facilitator, thought provoker and true industry leader.” The CHA Special Recognition Award is given to individuals or groups for their extraordinary contributions in positively showcasing the craft and hobby industry. This year’s recipients are Therese Hennessy and Shurtech Brands. Therese Hennessy is the owner of Polkadots and Moore in Mukwonago, WI. In addition, Therese founded The Honor Scrapbook, a non-profit organization that provides scrapbooks at no cost to American military veterans who participate in Honor Flight trips; honor flight trips transport veterans to Washington D.C. to visit memorials dedicated to their service and sacrifices. Therese’s mission is to honor those who served and protected their country by supplying them with a custom crafted scrapbook designed to store photos from their trip. Jennifer Jennington of Stamplistic, who nominated Therese, shared that Therese has “devoted countless hours for this mission that can touch so many people” and personally delivers as many scrapbooks as possible. Shurtech Brands markets do-it-yourself tapes, office and housewares products. The company also prides itself on giving back to more than 200 non-profit organizations annually. A large portion of its financial donations are coordinated through its company-sponsored Helping Hands program. Helping Hands is an employee volunteer program consisting of employee volunteers who initiate fundraising projects throughout the year. Some of the organizations supported by the company financially – through Helping Hands and beyond – include: Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Junior Achievement, Providence House, Ronald McDonald House, Seeds of Literacy, Cleveland Kids in Need Resource Center, Youth Challenge, St. Martin de Porres High School, St. Ignatius High School, St. Edwards High School, St. Joseph Academy, Rising Star, Bay Arts, American Heart Association, Cleveland Clinic School for Autism, Boys Hope Girls Hope, Community West Foundation through Fairview Hospital, Lake Erie Nature & Science Center, Avon Seniors Inc., Avon High School Scholarship Fund, Second Harvest Food Bank and the Greater Cleveland Fisher House. Beyond financial commitments, ShurTech Brands has also supported various non-profit and community groups through volunteerism and other unique programs. The awards will be presented during the Creativation Celebration (formerly the CHA Foundation Gala) on Saturday, January 21, 2017 from 6:30pm – 10:00pm during Creativation in Phoenix, AZ. Creativation (formerly the CHA MEGA Conference & Trade Show) will take place January 19-23, 2017 at the Phoenix Convention Center, and is the place where the global creative products community comes together to learn, connect and discover. Tickets for Creativation Celebration are available for purchase for registered Creativation attendees. For more information about Creativation and to register for an attendee badge, visit http://www.CreativationShow.org. ABOUT THE CRAFT & HOBBY ASSOCIATION The Craft & Hobby Association (CHA) is an international non-profit trade association consisting of thousands of member companies engaged in the design, manufacture, distribution and retail sales of products in the worldwide craft and hobby industry. For more information about CHA, membership or its Creativation Show, visit http://www.craftandhobby.org.
Ross S.R.,Lester sher Center For The Study And Conservation Of Apes |
Wagner K.E.,Lester sher Center For The Study And Conservation Of Apes |
Schapiro S.J.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center |
Hau J.,Copenhagen University |
Lukas K.E.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011
Studying the effects of moving animals to new enclosures is of value to both captive managers and to scientists interested in the complex interplay between environment and behavior. Great apes represent some of the greatest challenges in this regard. Given the cognitive sophistication of these species and the substantial investments in new primate facilities, these investigations are particularly important. Using post-occupancy evaluation (POE) methodology, we compared behavior exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in indoor hardscape-type exhibits to behavior of the same individuals in new naturalistic enclosures with outdoor access. In the new facility, chimpanzees showed decreases in the frequency of abnormal behaviors and visual monitoring of humans (attention behaviors) whereas gorillas exhibited reduced agonism as well as decreased attention behaviors. Both gorillas and chimpanzees demonstrated higher rates of inactivity after transfer to the new facility. All subjects in addition demonstrated transitory changes in behavior after the move to the new facility (higher rates of scratching in yr 1 than in subsequent years), indicating a period of acclimatization. Seasonal effects on feeding behavior and activity levels (both species were more active in the winter) were evident as well. The results indicate that behavioral adjustment to a new facility is an extended process for both species and that seasonal effects should be considered in longitudinal analyses of acclimatization. Behavioral patterns supported the benefits of naturalistic, functional exhibit spaces and the utility of post-occupancy evaluations in assessing captive animal welfare. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Kane-Sutton M.,Case Western Reserve University |
Kinter B.,Case Western Reserve University |
Dennis P.M.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo |
Koonce J.F.,Case Western Reserve University
Journal of Great Lakes Research | Year: 2010
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects wild and hatchery fish in Europe, Japan, and the Great Lakes and Pacific regions of North America. The virus was associated with a large die-off of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in Lake Erie in 2006. To determine the infection pattern of VHSV, we sampled yellow perch during the spring, summer, and fall of 2007 and 2008 in the central basin of Lake Erie during routine sampling by the Ohio Division of Wildlife with bottom trawls in nearshore, mid-depth, and offshore locations near the Chagrin River. The Ohio Department of Agriculture's Diagnostic Laboratories and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's La Crosse Fish Health Center tested for VHSV from homogenized samples obtained from yellow perch kidney, spleen, and brain. At each lake sample location, we also measured temperature, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity. In both years, we found yellow perch infected with VHSV during a three-week period starting in the last week of spawning to early June. A high proportion of adult male and female yellow perch tested positive for VHSV during the infection period in our sample population. Infection appeared to be associated with temperatures between 12 and 18 °C and with significantly higher yellow perch densities during spawning. No large mortalities of yellow perch were observed during the VHSV infection period in 2007 and 2008. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stoinski T.S.,Zoo Atlanta |
Lukas K.E.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo |
Kuhar C.W.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2013
The long-term management of male gorillas in zoos is a significant challenge. The demographics of the population - specifically a 50/50 sex ratio and the desire to form breeding groups that contain a single male and multiple females - necessitates housing a majority of adult males outside of mixed-sex groups. The primary approach for socially housing these individuals within the North American population has been the formation of all-male groups. Our previous research had found that captive all-male groups were cohesive and showed behavioural patterns similar to what had been observed in the wild. To gain a more complete understanding of male social dynamics as a function of group type, we examined social interactions among male gorillas living in either bachelor or mixed-sex groups. Subjects included 48 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 44 years. Overall, we found age to be the primary predictor of social behaviour. Rates of affiliative behaviour were highest in immaturity with a gradual shift to more dominance related behaviours (displacements, non-contact aggression) in young adulthood. Non-contact aggression increased as a function of number of adult males in the group, which likely accounts for higher rates of non-contact aggression in silverbacks living in all-male as compared to mixed-sex groups. The results further reiterate that all-male groups are a feasible, long-term housing strategy for male gorillas in zoos and highlight important considerations for male management including: introduction of males in immaturity, delayed formation of breeding groups until males reach social as well as physical maturity, and the role of dominance-related behaviours, as opposed to escalated aggression, in adult male interactions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Murphy H.W.,Zoo Atlanta |
Dennis P.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo |
Meehan T.,Chicago Zoological Society
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2011
A total of 163 echocardiographic studies on western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) were submitted for evaluation; 140 from 99 animals were suitable for analysis. Of these, 81 studies (42 studies from 35 males ranging in age from 1141+ yr and 39 studies from 31 females ranging in age from 1141+ yr) are reported here. Three studies from 3 females and 56 studies from 30 males were excluded from this report due to cardiac abnormalities. Cardiac parameters measured were aortic root (Ao Rt) diameter and left atrial (L atrium) size. Left ventricular (LV) measurements included left ventricular internal diameter in systole (LVID s) and diastole (LVID d) as well as diastolic septal (IVS) and posterior wall thickness (LVPW). Values considered to be normal in females >11 yr of age were: Ao Rt < 3.5 cm, L atrium < 4.0 cm, LVID d < 5.0 cm, IVS < 1.4 cm, LVPW < 1.4 cm, and ejection fraction (EF) >60%. The data from male gorillas show a separation in animals based on three cardiac parameters: systolic function, LV cavity size, and LV wall thickness. Male gorillas >11 yr of age fall into two groups; unaffected and affected. Unaffected animals are defined as those with no echocardiographic abnormalities and a consistent Ao Rt of <4.0 cm, LVID d of <6.0 cm, IVS and LVPW of <1.5 cm, and an EF of >58%. The affected group consisted of male gorillas that exhibited changes in echocardiographic parameters representing the presence of cardiovascular disease. The results determined in this database, gathered from data collected from 19992009, suggest a sex-based difference between males and females with predominantly males demonstrating evidence of cardiac disease. The most striking finding seen in this study is that of progressive LV hypertrophy and depressed LV EF in affected adult male gorillas. Copyright 2011 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
Lukas K.E.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo |
Ross S.R.,Lincoln Park Zoo
Anthrozoos | Year: 2014
Zoos play a unique role in wildlife conservation, particularly in the area of conservation education. Because of their popularity and flagship status for broader conservation issues, great apes may prove to be one of the most important educational conduits in zoos. In 2002, we surveyed knowledge of and attitudes toward African apes in visitors to the Lester E. Fisher Great Ape House (GAH) at Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago, IL, USA. In the current study, we replicated the survey to document attitudes to and knowledge of the newly renovated and naturalistic Regenstein Center for African Apes (RCAA) and compared results. We found RCAA was no more effective than GAH in increasing visitor knowledge about apes, although visitors answered more questions correctly upon exit than on entrance in both buildings. We did find, however, that RCAA was more effective than GAH at improving visitor attitudes toward chimpanzees. Specifically, upon exiting, RCAA visitors showed increased naturalistic attitudes and reduced utilitarian attitudes toward chimpanzees. Exhibiting apes in naturalistic settings may therefore be an effective way to increase visitor concern for apes in nature and in zoos. Zoos and aquariums investing in new, naturalistic ape exhibits with the aim to educate about, provide emotional connections to, improve attitudes toward, and ultimately increase conservation of apes, need to then critically evaluate whether the actual effect of the designed environment on visitors—above and beyond intended benefits for the animals—is commensurate with the investment. The broader impacts of even small shifts in visitor attitude in the right direction could be significant. These findings may vary across species and settings, however, and should be assessed accordingly. © ISAZ 2014.
Ter Beest J.M.,The Wilds |
Schook M.W.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Zoo Biology | Year: 2016
The endangered Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager) has experienced significant population declines over the past century due to poaching, habitat destruction, and resource competition. Remaining animals in zoos and the wild are regionally isolated. Artificial insemination (AI) may be particularly useful as a means of aiding in global genetic management of these isolated populations. The first successful AI in onagers was performed in 2009 utilizing urinary hormone analyses and regular transrectal ultrasound examinations that required specialized handling devices. A method for estrous synchronization in this species would alleviate the need for daily handling and provide a more feasible approach to AI. This study tested long-acting controlled-release preparations of estradiol and progesterone, followed by a single injection of prostaglandin 10 days later, in six adult female Persian onagers to determine whether ovulation would occur within a narrow window of time. Serial transrectal ultrasound exams were performed to determine the day of ovulation following hormone treatment. Means and standard deviations were determined for the lengths of follicular and luteal phases, follicle sizes, and time to ovulation, and compared to historical data in this species. All six onagers ovulated between Days 18 and 22, with three females ovulating on Day 19, as determined by the presence of a corpus luteum. This is an apparently safe and effective method for the synchronization of estrous cycles in the Persian onager, and may be used to develop a timed AI protocol for use at institutions that do not have specialized handling facilities to enable regular transrectal ultrasound. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kuhar C.W.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo |
Fuller G.A.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo |
Dennis P.M.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Zoo Biology | Year: 2013
In humans, type II diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas is capable of producing insulin but cells do not appropriately respond to insulin with an uptake of glucose. While multiple factors are associated with type II diabetes in humans, a high calorie diet and limited exercise are significant risk factors for the development of this disease. Zoo primates, with relatively high caloric density diets and sedentary lifestyles, may experience similar conditions that could predispose them to the development of diabetes. We surveyed all Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) facilities with primates in their collections to determine the prevalence of diabetes, diagnosis and treatment methods, and treatment outcomes. Nearly 30% of responding institutions reported at least one diabetic primate in their current collection. Although the majority of reported cases were in Old World Monkeys (51%), all major taxonomic groups were represented. Females represented nearly 80% of the diagnosed cases. A wide variety of diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment techniques were reported. It is clear from these results diabetes should be considered prominently in decisions relating to diet, weight and activity levels in zoo-housed primates, as well as discussions surrounding animal health and welfare. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.