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Clermont-Ferrand, France

Malet A.,Scientific Affairs | Faure M.-O.,Scientific Affairs | Deletage N.,Research and Development | Pereira B.,University hospital Clermont Ferrand | And 2 more authors.
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: Although local anesthetics (LAs) are generally accepted as being safe, incidental neuronal damage has been reported for all LAs in humans. Therefore, in this study, we compared the dose corresponding to 50% cell lethality (LD50) of articaine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, prilocaine, and ropivacaine in human neuroblastoma cells. METHODS: Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells were exposed for 20 minutes to different concentrations of each LA. Metabolic activity of viable cells was assessed by a cell viability test with a tetrazolium dye (WST-1) followed by optical density quantification. LD50 was determined by extrapolation of curve response. RESULTS: As expected, all LAs induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The bupivacaine, lidocaine, prilocaine, mepivacaine, articaine, and ropivacaine LD50 were 0.95 ± 0.08, 3.35 ± 0.33, 4.32 ± 0.39, 4.84 ± 1.28, 8.98 ± 2.07, and 13.43 ± 0.61 mM, respectively, after 20 minutes of incubation on SH-SY5Y cells. Ropivacaine LD50 was significantly different from the bupivacaine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, and prilocaine LD50 (all P ≤ 0.009). No significant difference was obtained between ropivacaine and articaine LD50 and between prilocaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine LD50. Articaine LD50 was significantly different from lidocaine LD50 (P = 0.03). Bupivacaine LD50 was significantly lower compared with all LAs (all P ≤ 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: LA neurotoxicity was tested in a validated in vitro model SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line. Three groups of LAs were identified in terms of toxicity: (1) the less (ropivacaine, articaine); (2) medium (mepivacaine, prilocaine, lidocaine); and (3) the high (bupivacaine). Among dental anesthetics, articaine is the least neurotoxic in SH-SY5Y cells. © 2014 International Anesthesia Research Society. Source

Holm N.R.,Aarhus University Hospital | Adriaenssens T.,University Hospitals Leuven | Motreff P.,University hospital Clermont Ferrand | Shinke T.,Kobe University | And 2 more authors.

Treatment of bifurcation lesions by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) shows major variation in complexity. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-resolution images of the pathoanatomy, thrombus, wires and stent positions during the procedure. This information may prove crucial in optimising PCI results and clinical outcomes after complex bifurcation treatment. Mounting evidence confirms the feasibility of OCT in bifurcations, and specific steps where OCT may be advantageous in guiding bifurcation PCI have been identified. Awaiting major clinical outcome trials, OCT has already entered the European guidelines for myocardial revascularisation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the potential clinical use of OCT in bifurcations. © 2015 Europa Digital & Publishing. All rights reserved. Source

Pierre F.H.F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Martin O.C.B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Santarelli R.L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Santarelli R.L.,French Pork and Pig Institute Institute du Porc | And 14 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Background: Processed meat intake has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. We have shown that cured meat promotes carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and increases specific biomarkers in the colon of rats. Objectives: We investigated whether cured meat modulates biomarkers of cancer risk in human volunteers and whether specific agents can suppress cured meat-induced preneoplastic lesions in rats and associated biomarkers in rats and humans. Design: Six additives (calcium carbonate, inulin, rutin, carnosol, a-tocopherol, and trisodium pyrophosphate) were added to cured meat given to groups of rats for 14 d, and fecal biomarkers were measured. On the basis of these results, calcium and tocopherol were kept for the following additional experiments: cured meat, with or without calcium or tocopherol, was given to dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats (47% meat diet for 100 d) and to human volunteers in a crossover study (180 g/d for 4 d). Rat colons were scored for mucin-depleted foci, putative precancer lesions. Biomarkers of nitrosation, lipoperoxidation, and cytotoxicity were measured in the urine and feces of rats and volunteers. Results: Cured meat increased nitroso compounds and lipoperoxidation in human stools (both P < 0.05). Calcium normalized both biomarkers in rats and human feces, whereas tocopherol only decreased nitro compounds in rats and lipoperoxidation in feces of volunteers (all P < 0.05). Last, calcium and tocopherol reduced the number of mucin-depleted foci per colon in rats compared with nonsupplemented cured meat (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Data suggest that the addition of calcium carbonate to the diet or a-tocopherol to cured meat may reduce colorectal cancer risk associated with cured-meat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00994526. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Isner-Horobeti M.-E.,University of Strasbourg | Isner-Horobeti M.-E.,Institut Universitaire de France | Dufour S.P.,University of Strasbourg | Vautravers P.,University of Strasbourg | And 6 more authors.
Sports Medicine

Eccentric (ECC) exercise is classically used to improve muscle strength and power in healthy subjects and athletes. Due to its specific physiological and mechanical properties, there is an increasing interest in employing ECC muscle work for rehabilitation and clinical purposes. Nowadays, ECC muscle actions can be generated using various exercise modalities that target small or large muscle masses with minimal or no muscle damage or pain. The most interesting feature of ECC muscle actions is to combine high muscle force with a low energy cost (typically 4- to 5-times lower than concentric muscle work) when measured during leg cycle ergometry at a similar mechanical power output. Therefore, if caution is taken to minimize the occurrence of muscle damage, ECC muscle exercise can be proposed not only to athletes and healthy subjects, but also to individuals with moderately to severely limited exercise capacity, with the ultimate goal being to improve their functional capacity and quality of life. The first part of this review article describes the available exercise modalities to generate ECC muscle work, including strength and conditioning exercises using the body's weight and/or additional external loads, classical isotonic or isokinetic exercises and, in addition, the oldest and newest specifically designed ECC ergometers. The second part highlights the physiological and mechanical properties of ECC muscle actions, such as the well-known higher muscle force-generating capacity and also the often overlooked specific cardiovascular and metabolic responses. This point is particularly emphasized by comparing ECC and concentric muscle work performed at similar mechanical (i.e., cycling mechanical power) or metabolic power (i.e., oxygen uptake, VO2). In particular, at a similar mechanical power, ECC muscle work induces lower metabolic and cardiovascular responses than concentric muscle work. However, when both exercise modes are performed at a similar level of VO2, a greater cardiovascular stress is observed during ECC muscle work. This observation underlines the need of cautious interpretation of the heart rate values for training load management because the same training heart rate actually elicits a lower VO2 in ECC muscle work than in concentric muscle work. The last part of this article reviews the documented applications of ECC exercise training and, when possible, presents information on single-joint movement training and cycling or running training programs, respectively. The available knowledge is then summarized according to the specific training objectives including performance improvement for healthy subjects and athletes, and prevention of and/or rehabilitation after injury. The final part of the article also details the current knowledge on the effects of ECC exercise training in elderly populations and in patients with chronic cardiac, respiratory, metabolic or neurological disease, as well as cancer. In conclusion, ECC exercise is a promising training modality with many different domains of application. However, more research work is needed to better understand how the neuromuscular system adapts to ECC exercise training in order to optimize and better individualize future ECC training strategies. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Legendre M.,Bocage University Hospital | Devilliers H.,systemIC | Perard L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Groh M.,University of Paris Descartes | And 22 more authors.
Medicine (United States)

Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disease, defined by the association of idiopathic acute TINU. The aim of our work was to determine the characteristics of adult TINU syndrome in France, and to assess factors (including treatment) influencing medium-term prognosis. We conducted a nationwide study including 20 French hospitals. Clinical, laboratory, and renal histopathologic data of 41 biopsy-proven TINU syndromes were retrospectively collected. The patients were diagnosed between January 1, 1999 and December 1, 2015. Twenty-five females and 16 males were included (F/M ratio: 1.6:1). The median age at disease onset was 46.8 years (range 16.8-77.4) with a median serum creatinine level at 207 μmol/L (range 100-1687) and a median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 27 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 (range 2-73). Twenty-nine patients (71%) had a bilateral anterior uveitis and 24 (59%) had deterioration in general health at presentation. Moderate proteinuria was found in 32 patients (78%) (median proteinuria 0.52 g/24 h; range 0.10-2.10), aseptic leukocyturia in 25/36 patients (70%). The evaluation of renal biopsies revealed 41 patients (100%) with an acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 19/39 patients (49%) with light to moderate fibrosis and 5 patients (12%) with an acute tubular necrosis. Thirty-six patients (88%) were treated with oral corticosteroids. After 1 year of follow-up, the median eGFR was 76 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 (range 17-119) and 32% of the patients suffered from moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Serum creatinine (P < 0.001, r = -0.54), serum bicarbonate and phosphate levels (respectively, P = 0.01, r = 0.53; and P = 0.04, r = 0.46), and age (P = 0.03, r = -0.37) at the 1st symptoms were associated with eGFR after 1 year. During the 1st year 40% of patients had uveitis relapses. The use of oral corticosteroids was not associated with a better kidney function but was associated with fewer uveitis relapses (P = 0.44 and 0.02, respectively). In our study, 32% of patients were suffering from moderate to severe chronic kidney disease after 1 year of follow-up, and 40% had uveitis relapses during this follow-up. This work also suggests that oral corticosteroids are effective for the treatment of TINU syndrome's uveitis. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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