Clemson, SC, United States
Clemson, SC, United States

Clemson University is an American public, coeducational, land-grant and sea-grant research university located in Clemson, South Carolina, United States.Founded in 1889, Clemson University consists of five colleges: Agriculture, Forestry and Life science; Architecture, Arts and Humanities; Business and Behavioral science; Engineering and Science; and Health, Education and Human Development. As of 2013, Clemson University enrolled a total of 16,931 undergraduate students for the fall semester and 4,372 graduate students and the student/faculty ratio is 16:1. The cost of in-state tuition is about $13,054 and out-of-state tuition is $30,488. US News and World Report ranks Clemson University 20th among all national public universities. Wikipedia.

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University of South Carolina and Clemson University | Date: 2016-08-11

Disclosed are thermoset/thermoplastic composites that include a thermoset component directly or indirectly bonded to a thermoplastic component via a crosslinked binding layer between the two. The crosslinked binding layer is bonded to the thermoplastic component via epoxy linkages and is either directly or indirectly bonded to the thermoset component via epoxy linkages. The composite can be a laminate and can provide a route for addition of a thermoplastic implant to a thermoset structure.

Tritt T.M.,Clemson University
Annual Review of Materials Research | Year: 2011

Over the past 1015 years, there have been significant advances in the scientific understanding as well as in the performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials. TE materials can be incorporated into power generation devices that are designed to convert waste heat into useful electrical energy. These TE materials can also be used in solid-state refrigeration devices for cooling applications. The conversion of waste heat into electrical energy will certainly play a role in our current challenge for alternative energy technologies to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article provides an overview of the various TE phenomena and discusses some of the primary TE materials that are currently being investigated. Several of the key parameters and terminology are defined and discussed along with an overview of some of the current and emerging technologies. The phonon glasselectron crystal approach to new TE materials for developing new materials is presented along with the role of solid-state crystal chemistry and the criteria for higher-performance TE materials. This article discusses TE phenomena, the selection criteria for higher-performance materials, and a few key materials. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Dong L.,Clemson University
Optics Express | Year: 2013

Recently, mode instability was observed in optical fiber lasers at high powers, severely limiting power scaling for single-mode outputs. Some progress has been made towards understanding the underlying physics. A thorough understanding of the effect is critical for continued progress of this very important technology area. Mode instability in optical fibers is, in fact, a manifestation of stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering. In this work, a quasi-closed-form solution for the nonlinear coupling coefficient is found for stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers. The results help to significantly improve understanding of mode instability. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Sun H.,Clemson University
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2013

Herd literature suggests that people tend to discount their own beliefs and imitate others when making adoption decisions and that the resulting adoption decisions are fragile and can be easily reversed during the postadoptive stage. This helps explain why the adoption of a number of new technologies-from Amazon's Kindle, to Apple's iPod, iPhone, and iPad, to various types of Web 2. 0 technologies-appears to have adoption patterns similar to those of new fashion trends (i. e., an initial en masse acquisition followed by subsequent abandonment). It is important to understand these phenomena because they are strongly related to the staying power of technology. From a herd behavior perspective, this study proposes two new concepts, namely discounting one's own information and imitating others, to describe herd behavior in technology adoption. A research model is developed to describe the conditions under which herd behavior in technology adoption occurs, how it impacts technology adoption decision making, and how it influences post-adoptive system use. A longitudinal study is conducted to examine the research model. Findings from this research suggest that the discounting of one's own beliefs and the imitating of others when adopting a new technology are provoked primarily by the observation of prior adoptions and perceptions of uncertainty regarding the adoption of new technology. Herd behavior has a significant influence on user technology adoption; however, it does not necessarily lead to the collapse of the user base, as predicted in the herd literature. Instead, imitation can help reduce post-adoption regret and thus serve as a legitimate strategy for choosing a good enough technology, which may or may not be the best option to enhance job performance. People tend to adjust their beliefs when herding and also to revive their discounted initial beliefs to modify their beliefs about the technology at the post-adoptive stage. Findings from this study have significant research and practical implications.

Arya D.P.,Clemson University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2011

A DNA duplex can be recognized sequence-specifically in the major groove by an oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). The resulting structure is a DNA triple helix, or triplex. The scientific community has invested significant research capital in the study of DNA triplexes because of their robust potential for providing new applications, including molecular biology tools and therapeutic agents. The triplex structures have inherent instabilities, however, and the recognition of DNA triplexes by small molecules has been attempted as a means of strengthening the three-stranded complex. Over the decades, the majority of work in the field has focused on heterocycles that intercalate between the triplex bases. In this Account, we present an alternate approach to recognition and stabilization of DNA triplexes.We show that groove recognition of nucleic acid triple helices can be achieved with aminosugars. Among these aminosugars, neomycin is the most effective aminoglycoside (groove binder) for stabilizing a DNA triple helix. It stabilizes both the TAT triplex and mixed-base DNA triplexes better than known DNA minor groove binders (which usually destabilize the triplex) and polyamines. Neomycin selectively stabilizes the triplex (TAT and mixed base) without any effect on the DNA duplex. The selectivity of neomycin likely originates from its potential and shape complementarity to the triplex Watson-Hoogsteen groove, making it the first molecule that selectively recognizes a triplex groove over a duplex groove. The groove recognition of aminoglycosides is not limited to DNA triplexes, but also extends to RNA and hybrid triple helical structures.Intercalator-neomycin conjugates are shown to simultaneously probe the base stacking and groove surface in the DNA triplex. Calorimetric and spectrosocopic studies allow the quantification of the effect of surface area of the intercalating moiety on binding to the triplex. These studies outline a novel approach to the recognition of DNA triplexes that incorporates the use of noncompeting binding sites. These principles of dual recognition should be applicable to the design of ligands that can bind any given nucleic acid target with nanomolar affinities and with high selectivity. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY | Award Amount: 505.60K | Year: 2017

CBET 1653841 PI: Mishra, Ashok

This project will create a new model for improving water sustainability under extreme droughts and introduce it to the scientific, social and policy communities. The model results will be distributed to user groups who are currently coping with water sustainability issues and will likely do so in the future. The project is anticipated to directly benefit regional stake holders to enable improved management of water resources during drought conditions, and also to assist federal agencies to forecast vulnerability to water stress in advance times that are relevant to stakeholders. The integrated model and approach will be tested in the Savannah River Basin, and it is anticipated that the methodology will be extendible to other parts of the country that witness frequent drought threats to water security.

The goal is to evaluate water security in the context of drought extremes by addressing three research objectives. Specifically, the first two research objectives will focus on quantifying the drought-water security relationship by evaluating dependence structure, cascade behavior and vulnerability threshold, while the third objective is to apply the approach to improve decision making using seasonal forecast and stakeholder information. The research objectives will be tightly connected with a multidisciplinary education and research plan designed to provide solutions to current water insecurity problems.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Cooperative Agreement | Program: | Phase: RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROV | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2016

Non-Technical Description
This Research Infrastructure Improvement Track-2 Focused EPSCoR Collaboration (RII Track-2 FEC) proposal is a collaboration between four institutions in South Carolina, Alabama, and New Mexico, namely Clemson University, the University of Alabama Birmingham, the University of New Mexico, and the University of South Carolina. The aim of the project is to extend the uses of the experimental method of optogenetics, which, since its introduction in 2005, has had a transformative impact on neurobiology. This method allows experimenters to activate individual neurons or groups of neurons, with high levels of spatial and temporal control, by flashing light on them. One of the main limitations of standard optogenetics is the inability of visible light to penetrate deep within living tissues. In this project, a system will be developed to allow the use of low-dosage X-rays, rather than visible light, as the activating signal. The project includes multiple opportunities to involve students, especially members of under-represented minority groups. Agreements are in place to host students from Winthrop University and Northern New Mexico College, which serve highly diverse student populations, in existing summer research programs at the research-intensive universities. The project also includes plans for mentoring junior faculty, especially in proposal development.

Technical Description
This multi-disciplinary project involves step-wise development of novel experimental methods. First, radioluminescent nanoparticles (RLPs) will be produced that emit light when exposed to X-rays. The RLPs will be chemically modified to allow specific covalent attachment to a genetically engineered membrane-bound opsin protein expressed in neurons, ensuring close proximity of the two components for efficient transfer of the light stimulus. The system will be tested (for efficacy and the absence of undesired side effects) in cultured cells, then brain slice preparations, and finally in intact animals (rats and mice). RLPs will be introduced into animals by injection into the cerebrospinal fluid, through which the particles may diffuse into the brain. The effects of X-ray exposure on the behavior of immobilized and freely moving animals will then be tested to verify successful activation of neural cells in the motor and auditory cortexes.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: CERAMICS | Award Amount: 546.25K | Year: 2017

Luminescence is present in our daily life, e.g., from electronic screens and lighting to medical imaging. It affects energy conservation, health and security. Luminescence is generated in several ways, in particular by ionizing radiation. Likewise, luminescent materials are used for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, e.g., scintillators and dosimeters. This research promotes the development of enhanced luminescent materials positively affecting life and society through the discovery and development of more efficient sensors for ionizing radiation. It also supports the integration between research, training and education; outreach towards underrepresented minority groups; and enhancement of educational infrastructure in high schools in South Carolina. Specifically, it aims at increasing the awareness of materials science and engineering to high school students as a relevant and attractive professional path, and the development of resources and strategies to incorporate fundamental concepts of materials science and engineering into science classes in high school. Materials science and engineering graduates commonly find employment in advanced materials and engineered components industries.

The performance of scintillators and dosimeters is related to, among other things, the presence of electronic traps that correspond to localized energy levels within the band gap generated by defects like vacancies, interstitials, impurities, etc. This project is the first comprehensive investigation that relates characteristics of luminescent materials such as chemical composition and crystallographic structure to the specific characteristics of electronic traps. Within this context, the goals of this project include the investigation of relationships between the structure of families of materials and dopants with the nature and characteristics of their electronic traps and their luminescent/scintillating properties, as well as guided discovery of new compositions and development of luminescent materials in diverse forms to answer for scintillating and dosimetric needs. Given the serendipitous nature of the discovery of scintillators and dosimeters to date, this project offers an innovative and transformative approach toward engineering electronic traps in luminescent materials to guide discovery, create functionality, and enhance performance of dosimeters and scintillators. Within this research, undergraduate and graduate students will be trained in cutting-edge research methods and techniques related to synthesis, processing, and characterization of inorganic luminescent materials.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Cyber Secur - Cyberinfrastruc | Award Amount: 499.81K | Year: 2017

As data-intensive science becomes the norm in many fields of science, high-performance data transfer is rapidly becoming a standard cyberinfrastructure requirement. To meet this requirement, an increasingly large number of university campuses have deployed Science DMZs. A Science DMZ is a portion of the network, built at or near the edge of the campus or laboratorys network, that is designed such that the equipment, configuration, and security policies are optimized for high-performance scientific applications rather than for general-purpose computing. This project develops a secure and resilient architecture called SciGuard that addresses the security challenges and the inherent weaknesses in Science DMZs. SciGuard is based on two emerging networking paradigms, Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV), both of which enable the granularity, flexibility and elasticity needed to secure Science DMZs.

Two core security functions, an SDN firewall application and a virtual Intrusion Detection System (IDS), coexist in SciGuard for protecting Science DMZs. The SDN firewall application is a software-based, in-line security function running atop the SDN controller. It can scale well without bypassing the firewall using per-flow/per-connection network traffic processing. It is also separated from the institutional hardware-based firewalls to enforce tailored security policies for the science-only traffic sent to Science DMZs. The virtual IDS is an NFV-based, passive security function, which can be quickly instantiated and elastically scaled to deal with attack traffic variations in Science DMZs, while significantly reducing both equipment and operational costs. In addition to these functions, the researchers also design a cloud-based federation mechanism for SciGuard to support security policy automatic testing and security intelligence sharing. The new mechanisms developed in this project are robust, scalable, low cost, easily managed, and optimally provisioned, therefore substantially enhancing the security of Science DMZs. This research encourages the diversity of students involved in the project by active recruitment of women and other underrepresented groups for participation in the project. The project has substantial involvement of graduate students in research, and trains promising undergraduate students in the implementation and experiments of the proposed approach. Moreover, the project enhances academic curricula by integrating the research findings into new and existing courses.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: CRISP - Critical Resilient Int | Award Amount: 499.87K | Year: 2017

The functioning of interdependent critical infrastructures such as water, electricity, gas, transportation and telecommunications is highly reliant on sensors, data networks, and control services that are enabled by computer hardware and software systems, which in turn cannot function without electric power and sufficient cooling capacity. The interdependency and interconnected nature of these cyber-physical systems has increased the possibility that a minor disturbance in one infrastructure can cascade into a regional outage across several infrastructure systems. The human response to such outages, both on the supply and demand sides, is crucial and mainly influenced by the perception of emerging risk and the ability to take rational decisions. This project is developing a framework for modeling collaborative adaptive capabilities that are driven by human cognitive abilities and preferences in order to minimize the risk of cascading failures across infrastructure systems. The cyber-physical-psychological interplay investigated in this project will have widespread benefits to infrastructure managers, emergency response teams and policy makers enabling them to more effectively deal with emerging crises. This project also offers inter-disciplinary research opportunities for undergraduates and underrepresented students in addition to graduate student mentoring.

The research objective is to advance real-time predictive capabilities of cascading failures across interdependent critical infrastructures by aligning the simulation model architecture with human adaptive preferences to enable rational decision making in the face of emerging unprecedented risks. Three interconnected tasks will be undertaken to achieve this objective: (1) the cognitive abilities and adaptation preferences of infrastructure control room operators (and organizations they represent) will be modeled using cognitive task analysis techniques; (2) an integrated real-time simulation model for electricity-gas-water networks will be developed through time-synchronization of individual dynamic simulation models using a system-in-the-loop framework; and (3) the capabilities of computational intelligence techniques such as cellular computational networks in predicting near-future system states will be evaluated. Particular attention will be paid to the ability of infrastructure operators to visualize an emerging threat through the developed model architecture and embedding their adaptive preferences in the predictive modeling framework to rationalize response decision making. This project will advance understanding of both spatial and temporal extents of cascading failures through continuous learning of the simulation model using real-time monitoring data from SCADA systems. With advancements on several fronts, the research outcomes will contribute to realizing autonomous adaptive control of critical interdependent infrastructures.

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