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Anwer K.,EGEN Inc | Kelly F.J.,Clearview Cancer Institute | Chu C.,University of Pennsylvania | Fewell J.G.,EGEN Inc | And 2 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology

Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of a formulated IL-12 plasmid administered intraperitoneally (IP) in conjunction with intravenous (IV) carboplatin/docetaxel in platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer patients. Methods. Escalating doses of IL-12 plasmid (phIL-12) formulated with the lipopolymer PEG-PEI-Cholesterol (PPC) were administered IP every 10-11 days for a total of four treatments and the highest dose was expanded to eight treatments. Patients also received IV carboplatin (AUC 5) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) every 21 days. Patients were followed for safety, biological activity and antitumor activity after phIL-12/PPC treatment. Results. All 13 patients enrolled in the study received both phIL-12/PPC and chemotherapy treatment. There were 49 plasmid-associated adverse events (AEs). The most common AEswere abdominal pain, transient hypotension, low grade fever, catheter site pain, chills, dysgeusia, infusion-related reaction, and nausea. These AEs appeared to be plasmid dose related. Grade 3 AEs included manageable abdominal pain and cytokine release syndrome. There were no dose limiting toxicities and the plasmid treatment did not augment the chemotherapy-associated AEs. The best overall antitumor response (17% CR, 33% PR, 42% SD and 8% PD) was typical of the patient population enrolled for the study. Translational studies showed rise in IFN-γ and TNF-α concentrations in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions. The escalating doses and cycles of intraperitoneal phIL-12/PPC when combined with carboplatin/docetaxel chemotherapy in recurrent ovarian cancer patients were well tolerated and did not appear to exacerbate the side effects or attenuate the efficacy of the chemotherapy treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Chiappori A.A.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Schreeder M.T.,Clearview Cancer Institute | Moezi M.M.,Integrated Community Oncology Network | Stephenson J.J.,Institute for Translational Oncology Research | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer

Background: Bcl-2 family genes are frequently amplified in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A phase I trial was conducted to evaluate the safety of obatoclax, a Bcl-2 family inhibitor, given in combination with standard chemotherapy. Methods: Eligible patients (3-6 per cohort) had extensive-stage SCLC, measurable disease, 1 before therapy, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, and adequate organ function. Patients were treated with escalating doses of obatoclax, either as a 3-or 24-h infusion, on days 1-3 of a 21-day cycle, in combination with carboplatin (area under the curve 5, day 1 only) and etoposide (100 mg m 2, days 1-3). The primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of obatoclax.Results:Twenty-five patients (56% male; median age 66 years) were enrolled in three dose cohorts for each schedule. Maximum tolerated dose was established with the 3-h infusion at 30 mg per day and was not reached with the 24-h infusion. Compared with the 24-h cohorts, the 3-h cohorts had higher incidence of central nervous system (CNS) adverse events (AEs); dose-limiting toxicities were somnolence, euphoria, and disorientation. These CNS AEs were transient, resolving shortly after the end of infusion, and without sequelae. The response rate was 81% in the 3-h and 44% in the 24-h infusion cohorts. Conclusion: Although associated with a higher incidence of transient CNS AEs than the 24-h infusion, 3-h obatoclax infusion combined with carboplatin-etoposide was generally well tolerated at doses of 30 mg per day. Though patient numbers were small, there was a suggestion of improved efficacy in the 3-h infusion group. Obatoclax 30 mg infused intravenously over 3 h on 3 consecutive days will be utilised in future SCLC studies. © 2012 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved. Source

Infante J.R.,Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Reid T.R.,University of California at San Diego | Cohn A.L.,Rocky Mountain Cancer Centers | Edenfield W.J.,Cancer Centers of the Carolinas | And 10 more authors.

BACKGROUND In this multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 2 trial, the authors evaluated the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor axitinib, bevacizumab, or both in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS Patients with previously untreated mCRC were randomized 1:1:1 to receive continuous axitinib 5 mg twice daily, bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks, or axitinib 5 mg twice daily plus bevacizumab 2 mg/kg every 2 weeks, each in combination with modified 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX-6). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS In all, 126 patients were enrolled from August 2007 to September 2008. The ORR was numerically inferior in the axitinib arm (n = 42) versus the bevacizumab arm (n = 43; 28.6% vs 48.8%; 1-sided P =.97). Progression-free survival (PFS) (11.0 months vs 15.9 months; 1-sided P =.57) and overall survival (OS) (18.1 months vs 21.6 months; 1-sided P =.69) also were numerically inferior in the axitinib arm. Similarly, efficacy endpoints for the axitinib/bevacizumab arm (n = 41) were numerically inferior (ORR, 39%; PFS, 12.5 months; OS, 19.7 months). The patients who received axitinib had fewer treatment cycles compared with other arms. Common all-grade adverse events across all 3 treatment arms were fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea (all ≥49%). Hypertension and headache were more frequent in the patients who received axitinib. Patients in the bevacizumab arm had the longest treatment exposures and the highest rates of peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS Neither the addition of continuous axitinib nor the axitinib/bevacizumab combination to FOLFOX-6 improved ORR, PFS, or OS compared with bevacizumab as first-line treatment of mCRC. © 2013 American Cancer Society. Source

Socinski M.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Bondarenko I.,City Hospital and 4 | Karaseva N.A.,Regional Oncology Center | Makhson A.M.,City Oncology Center | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology

Purpose: This phase III trial compared the efficacy and safety of albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) plus carboplatin with solvent-based paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel) plus carboplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: In all, 1,052 untreated patients with stage IIIB to IV NSCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive 100 mg/m 2 nab-paclitaxel weekly and carboplatin at area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 6 once every 3 weeks (nab-PC) or 200 mg/m 2 sb-paclitaxel plus carboplatin AUC 6 once every 3 weeks (sb-PC). The primary end point was objective overall response rate (ORR). Results: On the basis of independent assessment, nab-PC demonstrated a significantly higher ORR than sb-PC (33% v 25%; response rate ratio, 1.313; 95% CI, 1.082 to 1.593; P = .005) and in patients with squamous histology (41% v 24%; response rate ratio, 1.680; 95% CI, 1.271 to 2.221; P < .001). nab-PC was as effective as sb-PC in patients with nonsquamous histology (ORR, 26% v 25%; P = .808). There was an approximately 10% improvement in progression-free survival (median, 6.3 v 5.8 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.902; 95% CI, 0.767 to 1.060; P = .214) and overall survival (OS; median, 12.1 v 11.2 months; HR, 0.922; 95% CI, 0.797 to 1.066; P = .271) in the nab-PC arm versus the sb-PC arm, respectively. Patients ≥ 70 years old and those enrolled in North America showed a significantly increased OS with nab-PC versus sb-PC. Significantly less grade ≥ 3 neuropathy, neutropenia, arthralgia, and myalgia occurred in the nab-PC arm, and less thrombocytopenia and anemia occurred in the sb-PC arm. Conclusion: The administration of nab-PC as first-line therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC was efficacious and resulted in a significantly improved ORR versus sb-PC, achieving the primary end point. nab-PC produced less neuropathy than sb-PC. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source

Bedoya D.J.,Clearview Cancer Institute | Mitsiades N.,Baylor College of Medicine
OncoTargets and Therapy

While androgen-deprivation therapy can induce dramatic clinical responses in advanced and metastatic prostate cancer, refractory disease (castration-resistant prostate cancer [CRPC]) eventually emerges. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the importance of residual intratumoral androgens in maintaining androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity in CRPC. The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP17 is an obligatory step in androgen synthesis, and therefore a critical therapeutic target in CRPC. Abiraterone acetate is a selective, irreversible inhibitor of CYP17 and can suppress adrenal synthesis of androgen precursors, and possibly in situ steroidogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. In a phase III multicenter study, abiraterone in combination with prednisone improved median overall survival of men with docetaxel-refractory CRPC by 3.9 months compared to placebo plus prednisone, and also resulted in higher objective prostate-specific antigen and radiographic response rates. The study led to the FDA approval in April 2011 of abiraterone for treatment of chemotherapy-refractory CRPC patients, validating steroidogenesis and the AR axis in general as therapeutic targets in CRPC. The FDA indication for abiraterone was expanded to all CRPCs in December 2012, while evaluation in even earlier disease states is ongoing. We propose a comprehensive AR axis-targeting approach via simultaneous, frontline enzymatic blockade of several steroidogenic enzymes (eg, CYP17 and AKR1C3) in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and potent, second-generation AR antagonists (eg, enzalutamide) in order to improve outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. © 2013 Bedoya and Mitsiades, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

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