Gaithersburg, MD, United States
Gaithersburg, MD, United States

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Burgess H.W.,Statseal Inc. | MacKrell J.,Carnegie Mellon University | Toms D.,Carnegie Mellon University | Karunanidhi A.,Carnegie Mellon University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biomaterials Applications | Year: 2010

Allograft tissues are used in over one million musculoskeletal procedures per year. Consequently, it is crucial tissue banks use procedures to militate against allograft associated bacterial and viral infections. Recent studies have identified an important pathogen inactivation technology for musculoskeletal allografts that utilizes high-dose gamma irradiation (50 kGy) under controlled conditions. A total dose of 50 kGy assures that the current standard for medical devices for a microbial sterility assurance level of 10- 6 is met. Furthermore, the pathogen inactivation technology results in a greater than four log inactivation of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. Efficacious clinical outcome from musculoskeletal allografts exposed to this innovative sterilization procedure will require that there is no performance decrement in the allograft's biological properties. Therefore, to validate this objective, we executed a study focusing on remodeling and osteoconduction of bone allografts treated with a high dose of gamma irradiation (50 kGy), radioprotectants and well-defined operating parameters of temperature and water content. A rabbit calvarial model was used to test the hypothesis that remodeling and osteoconduction of allogeneic bone treated with the new pathogen inactivation technology would be equivalent to nontreated allogeneic bone. Results indicated treated bone allografts were comparable to nontreated allografts. We conclude, therefore, that based on this outcome and other reports, that high doses of gamma irradiation under optimized conditions designed to reduce free radical damage to tissue will provide safer allografts.


Smeltzer C.C.,Clearant Inc. | Lukinova N.I.,Clearant Inc. | Towcimak N.D.,Clearant Inc. | Yan X.,Clearant Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Biologicals | Year: 2015

Plasma-originated commercial intravenous immunoglobulin, which is used for a variety of clinical purposes, has been studied to determine the effect of virus-inactivating doses of gamma irradiation on the structural-functional characteristics of the protein. A detailed analysis has been performed in response to a concern that the use of conventional gamma irradiation may damage biologically active proteins. The results demonstrate that although gamma irradiation of the IgG may have some impact on protein structure, the damage can be reduced or even prevented by appropriate irradiation conditions. At the virucidal dose of gamma irradiation (50kGy) and a temperature of-80°C, the integrity of the polypeptide chain of immunoglobulin and the secondary structure of IgG can be completely protected, while conformational changes in tertiary structure are significantly minimized to a level that preserves functional activity. The irradiated IgG retains specific antigen-binding properties and Fc-binding activity, indicating that the conformational integrity of the most important structural regions is not affected by γ-irradiation. These results present strong evidence that gamma irradiation treatment can be effectively implemented for inactivation of pathogens in IgG solutions that are used for intravenous injection. © 2015.


Smeltzer C.C.,Clearant Inc. | Lukinova N.I.,Clearant Inc. | Towcimak N.D.,Clearant Inc. | Yan X.,Clearant Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Biologicals | Year: 2015

Plasma-originated commercial intravenous immunoglobulin, which is used for a variety of clinical purposes, has been studied to determine the effect of virus-inactivating doses of gamma irradiation on the structural-functional characteristics of the protein. A detailed analysis has been performed in response to a concern that the use of conventional gamma irradiation may damage biologically active proteins. The results demonstrate that although gamma irradiation of the IgG may have some impact on protein structure, the damage can be reduced or even prevented by appropriate irradiation conditions. At the virucidal dose of gamma irradiation (50 kGy) and a temperature of -80 °C, the integrity of the polypeptide chain of immunoglobulin and the secondary structure of IgG can be completely protected, while conformational changes in tertiary structure are significantly minimized to a level that preserves functional activity. The irradiated IgG retains specific antigen-binding properties and Fc-binding activity, indicating that the conformational integrity of the most important structural regions is not affected by γ-irradiation. These results present strong evidence that gamma irradiation treatment can be effectively implemented for inactivation of pathogens in IgG solutions that are used for intravenous injection. © 2015.

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