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Hatboro, PA, United States

Enteria N.,Tohoku University | Yoshino H.,Tohoku University | Satake A.,Maeda corporation | Mochida A.,Tohoku University | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science

The experimental evaluation of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel is reported. The study aims to investigate the performance of the desiccant wheel and of the heat wheel both when operated separately and jointly. The performance evaluation of the desiccant wheel is based on its moisture removal capacity (MRC), moisture removal regeneration (MRR), and moisture mass balance (MMB). In addition, the study used the total energy balance (TEB), sensible coefficient of performance (COPSensible), latent coefficient of performance (COPLatent) and, total coefficient of performance (COPTotal). The performance of the heat wheel is based on its effectiveness. The COPSensible, COPLatent and, COPTotal are used in the performance evaluation of the coupled desiccant wheel and heat wheel. The general results of the study show that the MRC, MRR and MMB coupled with the TEB, COPLatent, COPSensible and COPTotal predict adequately the performance of the desiccant wheel. In addition, the coupled operation of the desiccant wheel and heat wheel, contributed to the reduction of the external thermal energy requirement for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel. This study can be applied in other researches seeking evaluation of the desiccant wheel, heat wheel, and their combined operation. Moreover, the data presented here are significant for the desiccant wheel benchmarking and for evaluation of the desiccant wheel models. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Enteria N.,Tohoku University | Yoshino H.,Tohoku University | Satake A.,Maeda corporation | Mochida A.,Tohoku University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Energy

This paper reports the development and construction of the novel solar cooling and heating system. The system consists of the thermal energy subsystem and the desiccant cooling subsystem. The system utilizes both the cheaper nighttime electric energy and the free daytime solar energy. The system is conceptualized to produce both cooling during summer daytime and hot water production during winter. Testing and evaluation of the system had been done to determine its operational procedure and performance. Based on the results, the thermal energy subsystem functioned to its expected performance in solar energy collection and thermal storage. The desiccant cooling subsystem reduced both the temperature and the humidity content of the air using solar energy with a minimal amount of back-up electric energy. The system however, needs further investigation under real conditions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Utset A.,Clean Earth | Del Rio B.,Leon Institute of Technology
Journal of Agricultural Science

A very serious effort to modernize irrigation systems is being made in Spain, to reduce water and energy losses in an environmentally sustainable way. This is expensive and it is important that the new irrigation systems work properly over a long period. The systems have been designed taking into account historical evapotranspiration (ET) averages during the months of maximum demand, as well as the crop-specific ET values (Kc coefficients) of typical crops. However, the increase in ET rates due to global warming could mean that the capacity of these new and expensive irrigation systems to fulfil the crop water requirements may be exceeded in the near future. However, the expected increase in CO2 concentration could diminish crop transpiration rates for similar water demands from the atmosphere, thereby reducing irrigation requirements. A methodology was developed in order to estimate crop water requirements under climate change conditions. The reliability of a new irrigation system designed in Valladolid, Northern Spain was tested. The regionalized climate change scenarios for Valladolid, provided by the National Institute of Meteorology, were used for the periods 2011-40, 2041-70 and 2071-2100 and the A2 and B2 emission scenarios were considered using the ECHAM and coupled general circulation model (CGCM) global circulation models. A historical series of daily meteorological data for Valladolid was used to generate statistical ET distributions through the LARS-WG generator. Simulations considered each of the above periods, global circulation models (GCM) and emission scenarios. Furthermore, the Kc of the typical irrigated crops of the zone (maize, potato and sugar beet) were reduced for each period, GCM and emission scenario according to the relationships between CO2 concentrations and transpiration obtained by Kruijt et al. (2008). The results indicated that, on average, historical ET rates provide a sufficiently robust indicator to enable estimations of the crop ET in the future, particularly considering the CO2 effect in reducing crop transpiration. However, ET variability is significantly increased after 2040, especially for the A2 emission scenario. The results show that ET variability rather than global increase is the most serious risk that current irrigation systems must face in the near future in Northern Spain, as consequence of climate change. Such variability should be included in irrigation designs. © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

Enteria N.,Enteria Grun Energietechnik | Yoshino H.,Architectural Institute of Japan | Takaki R.,Akita Prefectural University | Mochida A.,Tohoku University | And 4 more authors.
Solar Energy

The new energy policy in Japan is implemented by renewable energy resources which are given a large slice of the total for their contribution to energy sources. In addition, there is a government plan to minimize, if not to eliminate nuclear power sources. Building sector energy consumption is increasing every year, hence, utilization and development of alternative energy sources and technologies to support the requirements of every house are important. Numerical performance evaluation of the alternative energy and technologies supported single family detached house was conducted in a transient system simulation (TRNSYS) program to evaluate its performance and energy requirements, and to test the cases for a possible upgrade to an energy generating house. The evaluation of the house performance is compared for possible application to the situation in different areas of Japan. 82.6% of the total primary energy supply could be supported by renewable energy sources - solar energy and biomass fueled auxiliary heater. 69.7% of the consumed energy is electricity; grid line electricity is still needed in the present installed photovoltaic roof tiles of the house. Solar energy collection can support up to 26% of the primary thermal energy requirement of the single family detached house. The remaining 70% should be supported by the back-up water heater of which fuel can be sourced from different sources such as biomass, kerosene, etc. In general, making a house yield higher thermal performance by employing energy conservation measures (ECM) coupled with the utilization of different alternative energy sources readily available in the house's vicinity has an impact on the reduction of the house's energy consumption. In addition, application of new technologies which could be supported by different energy sources has an impact on the diverse utilization of the available energy sources in the house's vicinity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Clean Earth | Date: 2011-05-17

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