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Systems and methods for generating reactive oxygen species formulations useful in various oxidation applications. Exemplary formulations include singlet oxygen or superoxide and can also contain hydroxyl radicals or hydroperoxy radicals, among others. Formulations can contain other reactive species, including other radicals. Exemplary formulations containing peracids are activated to generate singlet oxygen. Exemplary formulations include those containing a mixture of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Exemplary formulations include those in which one or more components of the formulation are generated electrochemically. Formulations of the invention containing reactive oxygen species can be further activated to generate reactive oxygen species using activation chosen from a Fenton or Fenton-like catalyst, ultrasound, ultraviolet radiation or thermal activation. Exemplary applications of the formulations of the invention among others include: cleaning in place applications, water treatment, soil decontamination and flushing of well casings and water distribution pipes.


Shokoufi N.,Clean Chemistry | Yoosefian J.,Clean Chemistry
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry | Year: 2016

Since lanthanides are inner transitional elements with their 4f and 5d energy levels closed, they possess narrow electronic absorption peaks, which are little affected by their chemical environment. In this research, a thermal lens microscope (TLM) that utilizing diode lasers as pump and probe beams was constructed for selective determination of Sm (III) without any pre-concentration and separation procedure. The calibration plot has a linear behavior over the 0.5-500 μg mL-1 range and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 μg mL-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) is smaller than 5%. This method can be potentially applicable to environmental studies. © 2015 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.


Ai Sha N.,Clean Chemistry | Mo W.-L.,Clean Chemistry | Ma F.-Y.,Clean Chemistry
Ranliao Huaxue Xuebao/Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2016

A serial of Au/HZSM-5 samples were prepared by vacuum deposition precipitation, cation exchange and vacuum sulfhydryl protection method. The effect of different preparation method, calcination temperature, calcination atmosphere and addition of potassium on the particle size and distribution of gold was invetigated. Based on the characterization of X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope, it was found that the gold particle size of Au/HZSM-5 was changed greatly with different preparation methods. Gold particle size (about 2-5 nm) of Au/HZSM-5 prepared by vacuum sulfhydryl protection was obviously smaller than that of the other preparation methods. Taken Au/HZSM-5 catalyst prepared by vacuum deposition precipitation as an example, low calcination temperature and inert atmosphere (nitrogen and argon) were favorable to the good dispersion of gold particles. The activities and carbonylation selectivities of syngas on Au/HZSM-5 catalysts were evaluated by a micro-fixed pulse reactor. 48% of syngas conversion and 52% of methyl acetate selectivity were obtained at reaction temperature of 350 ℃ over Au/HZSM-5 catalysts with 1.86% Au loading, calcined in air, while 59% and 70% were obtained over catalyst calcined in argon. By contrast, 67% of syngas conversion and 78% of methyl acetate selectivity were obtained over the catalyst calcined in nitrogen plasma. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Xue M.,Clean Chemistry | Zhang X.,Clean Chemistry | Wang X.,Clean Chemistry | Tang B.,Clean Chemistry
Materials Letters | Year: 2010

In the current paper, novel multi-trunk CdS dendrites were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal system, employing CdCl2·2H2O and KSCN as the starting materials. No extra surfactants were used. The observations from TEM and SEM showed that the product composed of a few long central trunks with secondary branches, which preferentially grew in a parallel direction with a definite angle to the trunks. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns confirmed that the dendrite was single crystalline in nature. X-ray diffraction analyses proved that the CdS dendrites were pure hexagonal structure. On the basis of the experimental results, a possible growth process has been discussed. © 2010.


Liu Q.-K.,Clean Chemistry | Ma J.-P.,Clean Chemistry | Dong Y.-B.,Clean Chemistry
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

The first example of highly efficient iodine enrichment based on a Cd(ii)-triazole MOF (1) via both molecular sorption and ion-exchange approaches is reported. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Systems and methods for generating reactive oxygen species formulations useful in various oxidation applications. Exemplary formulations include singlet oxygen or superoxide and can also contain hydroxyl radicals or hydroperoxy radicals, among others. Formulations can contain other reactive species, including other radicals. Exemplary formulations containing peracids are activated to generate singlet oxygen. Exemplary formulations include those containing a mixture of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Exemplary formulations include those in which one or more components of the formulation are generated electrochemically. Formulations of the invention containing reactive oxygen species can be further activated to generate reactive oxygen species using activation chosen from a Fenton or Fenton-like catalyst, ultrasound, ultraviolet radiation or thermal activation. Exemplary applications of the formulations of the invention among others include: cleaning in place applications, water treatment, soil decontamination and flushing of well casings and water distribution pipes.


In some embodiments, a method may include separating contaminants from impaired water. The method may include contacting impaired water with a peracetate oxidant solution. The method may include mixing said impaired water with the peracetate oxidant solution. The method may include separating the impaired water oxidant solution mixture into solids and a water phase. In some embodiments, the peracetate oxidant solution may include peracetate anions and a peracid. The peracetate oxidant solution may have a pH from about 10 to about pH 12. The peracetate oxidant solution may have a molar ratio of peracetate anions to peracid ranging from about 60:1 to about 6000:1. In some embodiments, a peracetate anion to hydrogen peroxide molar ratio is greater than about 16:1. In some embodiments, a reactive coagulant, a softener, and/or a floc aid may be added to the impaired water.


Patent
Clean Chemistry | Date: 2012-05-31

The electrochemical reactors disclosed herein provide novel oxidation and reduction chemistries and employ increased mass transport rates of materials to and from the surfaces of electrodes therein.


In some embodiments, a method may include treating water comprising sulfur based contaminants. The method may include contacting a portion of water comprising a quantity of hydrogen sulfide with a first oxidant. The method may include producing sulfur solids as a result of contacting the hydrogen sulfide in the portion of water with the first oxidant. In some embodiments, the method may include separating the sulfur solids from the water. The first oxidant may include hydrogen peroxide. In some embodiments, oxidation of contaminated fluids may be accelerated by adding an acid in combination with a second oxidant to the contaminated fluids. In some embodiments, oxidation of contaminated fluids may be accelerated by adjusting a pH of the contaminated fluids after addition of an oxidant to the contaminated fluids. In some embodiments, the pH may be adjusted to less than 7.


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