CLEA Japan Inc.

Meguro-ku, Japan

CLEA Japan Inc.

Meguro-ku, Japan
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Shimizu Y.,Tokushima University | Morikawa Y.,CLEA Japan Inc. | Okudaira S.,Tohoku University | Kimoto S.,CLEA Japan Inc. | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Itching and infiltration of immune cells are important hallmarks of atopic dermatitis (AD). Although various studies have focused on peripheral mediator-mediated mechanisms, systemic mediator-mediated mechanisms are also important in the pathogenesis and development of AD. Herein, we found that intradermal injection of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid, induces scratching responses by Institute of Cancer Research mice through LPA1 receptor- and opioid μ receptor-mediating mechanisms, indicating its potential as a pruritogen. The circulating level of LPA in Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia mice, a systemic AD model, with severe scratching was found to be higher than that of control BALB/c mice, probably because of the increased lysophospholipase D activity of autotaxin (ATX) in the blood (mainly membrane associated) rather than in plasma (soluble). Heparan sulfate proteoglycan was shown to be involved in the association of ATX with blood cells. The sequestration of ATX protein on the blood cells by heparan sulfate proteoglycan may accelerate the transport of LPA to the local apical surface of vascular endothelium with LPA receptors, promoting the hyperpermeability of venules and the pathological uptake of immune cells, aggravating lesion progression and itching in Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia mice. © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology.

PubMed | CLEA Japan Inc., Kobe University and Division 5 Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society | Year: 2015

Biomarkers for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are useful for prediction and intervention of the disease at earlier stages. In this study, we performed a longitudinal study of changes in metabolites using an animal model of T2D, the spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rat. Fasting plasma samples of SDT and control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were collected from 6 to 24weeks of age, and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis. Fifty-nine hydrophilic metabolites were detected in plasma samples, including amino acids, carbohydrates, sugars and organic acids. At 12weeks of age, just before the onset of diabetes in SDT rats, the amounts of nine of these metabolites (asparagine, glutamine, glycerol, kynurenine, mannose, n-alpha-acetyllysine, taurine, threonine, and tryptophan) in SDT rats were significantly different from those in SD rats. In particular, metabolites in the tryptophan metabolism pathway (tryptophan and kynurenine) were decreased in SDT rats at 12weeks of age and later. The lower tryptophan and kynurenine levels in the prediabetic state and later were further confirmed by a replication study on SDT rats and by a longitudinal study on another animal model of T2D, the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat. Our data indicate that tryptophan and its metabolites are potential biomarkers for prediabetes and that tryptophan metabolism may be a potential target of intervention for treatment of the disease.

Nishijima K.,Saga University | Nishijima K.,Animal Facility for Aging Research | Saitoh R.,CLEA Japan Inc. | Tanaka S.,Animal Facility for Aging Research | And 3 more authors.
Biogerontology | Year: 2012

The life span and survival parameters of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in a breeding colony at CLEA Japan, Inc. were investigated. The average life span of male marmosets was 148.5 ± 6.1 (mean ± SE) months of age (M), which was significantly longer (P<0.01) than that of females (111.7 ± 6.0 M). Additionally, the male population reached 25-, 50-, 75- and 90 %-mortality at an older age than the female population. However, the maximum life span in males (259.9 M) was shorter than in females (262.5 M). The survival of females shows a relatively continuous decline; however, the male marmosets show a slight decline in survival during the first 7-9 years and then a dramatic decrease and another slight decline after 14-16 year of age in survival, i.e., a lifespan curve similar to what is observed in colonies of aging rodents and humans. The sex-associated difference in life span was caused by reproductive burden on the females. The present study reported a longer than expected life span of the marmoset, and a long-lived animal can be a powerful model for senescence and longevity sciences. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Nakai K.,Kobe University | Fujii H.,Kobe University | Kono K.,Kobe University | Goto S.,Kobe University | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a major risk of end-stage kidney disease. Many complex factors relate to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Using nonobese type 2 diabetes model rats, we confirmed that oxidative stress was a crucial factor. Because recent studies suggest that vitamin D could suppress oxidative stress, we explored whether the active vitamin D analog, maxacalcitol, could also attenuate oxidative stress and prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Diabetic rats aged 20 weeks were divided into 3 groups and treated with insulin, maxacalcitol, and vehicle. At age 30 weeks, blood and urine analyses, renal histology, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot were performed. RESULTS: Although maxacalcitol reduced albuminuria and mesangial matrix expansion, no significant differences were observed in blood pressure and creatinine clearance among the 3 treatment groups. Systemic and intrarenal oxidative stress was reduced by maxacalcitol therapy. Expressions of nuclear factor-κB and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the kidney also decreased in the insulin-treated and maxacalcitol-treated groups but increased in the vehicle-alone group. In addition, the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) decreased and Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology (ECH)-associated protein 1 (Keap1) increased in the vehicle-treated group; however, these expressions were restored in the maxacalcitol-and insulin-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that maxacalcitol attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy by suppression of oxidative stress and amelioration of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in nonobese type 2 diabetes without significant changes in blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate. © 2013 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. All rights reserved.

Katsuda Y.,Japan Tobacco Inc. | Ohta T.,Japan Tobacco Inc. | Miyajima K.,Japan Tobacco Inc. | Kemmochi Y.,Japan Tobacco Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Animals | Year: 2014

We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes and its complications in obese type 2 diabetic rat models: Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat, Wistar fatty rat, Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat and Spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat. Pancreatic changes with progression of diabetes were classified into early changes, such as islet hypertrophy and degranulation of β cells, and degenerative changes, such as islet atrophy and fibrosis of islet with infiltration of inflammatory cells. Renal lesions in tubuli and glomeruli were observed, and nodular lesions in glomeruli were notable changes in OLETF and SDT fatty rats. Among retinal changes, folding and thickening were interesting findings in SDT fatty rats. A decrease of motor nerve conduction velocity with progression of diabetes was presented in obese diabetic rats. Other diabetic complications, osteoporosis and sexual dysfunction, were also observed. Observation of bone metabolic abnormalities, including decrease of osteogenesis and bone mineral density, and sexual dysfunction, including hypotestosteronemia and erectile dysfunction, in obese type 2 diabetic rats have been reported. © 2014 Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

Fujii H.,Kobe University | Kono K.,Kobe University | Nakai K.,Kobe University | Goto S.,Kobe University | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Nephrology | Year: 2010

Background: The role of nitric oxide (NO) is controversial in diabetes nephropathy progression and the mechanisms remain unknown, especially in non-obese type 2 diabetes. To examine mechanisms of nephropathy progression in non-obese type 2 diabetes, we used spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats, a newly established model of non-obese type 2 diabetes. Methods: Fourteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as a control (20 weeks, n = 6; 30 weeks, n = 8), and 20-week-old male SDT rats were divided into 2 groups: diabetic (DM, n = 8) and DM + insulin (n = 8) groups. Twenty- and 36-week-old rats were sacrificed, and blood, urine, and histomorphometric analyses, mRNA expression analysis of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and NADPH oxidase, and blood pressure measurement were performed. Results: At 36 weeks, NO metabolites, and 8- hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were significantly higher in the diabetic group than in the other 2 groups. Further renal studies showed increased glomerular volume and mesangial area, and intensified eNOS, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining in the diabetic group. Oxidative and nitrosative stress were positively associated with increased glomerular volume and mesangial area, which were mostly recovered by insulin therapy. Conclusions: NO and oxidative stress increased in SDT rats, suggesting that these play key roles in nephropathy progression in non-obese type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Shinohara M.,CLEA Japan Inc.
Open Diabetes Journal | Year: 2011

The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is a spontaneous animal model of non-obese Type 2 diabetes (T2D) resembling those of humans, established in 1997. I investigated the clinical features of the SDT rats. The time of onset of glucosuria was different between male and female SDT rats; glucosuria appeared at approximately 20 weeks of age in male rats and at approximately 45 weeks of age in female rats. A cumulative incidence of diabetes of 100% was noted by 40 weeks of age in male rats, while it was only 33.3% even by 65 weeks of age in female rats. The survival rate up to 65 weeks of age was 92.9% in male rats and 97.4% in female rats. The male SDT rats were (1) hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia (from 25 weeks of age); (2) a significant increase in urea nitrogen levels, urinary protein excretion and HbA1c levels (from 35 weeks of age); (3) long-term survival without insulin treatment after onset of diabetes; additionally, no obesity was noted in any of the male and female rats. These results indicated that the SDT rat strain described here would serve as useful animal model for studies of non-obese T2D. © Masami Shinohara;.

Yonekura Y.,Kobe University | Fujii H.,Kobe University | Nakai K.,Kobe University | Kono K.,Kobe University | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology | Year: 2015

Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The β-blocker carvedilol has been proven to have an anti-oxidant property. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of carvedilol on diabetic nephropathy. At 20 weeks of age, male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats were divided into three groups based on treatment: (i) an INS group (administered insulin); (ii) a CAR group (administered 10 mg/kg per day, p.o., carvedilol); and (iii) a diabetic (DM) group (administered vehicle). Rats were treated for a period of 10 weeks and were killed at 30 weeks of age. Urinary albumin excretion, renal histomorphology, and oxidative stress were evaluated. Urinary albumin excretion was significantly lower in the CAR than DM group (42.82 ± 3.94 vs 76.62 ± 13.74 mg/day respectively; P < 0.05). The mesangial index was lower in the CAR group than in the DM group. Urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the number of 8-OHdG-positive cells in glomeruli, and the mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase p22phox and p47phox were also lower in the CAR than DM group. However, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood pressure levels were comparable between the two groups. The results suggest that carvedilol could prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy by suppressing oxidative stress. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

PubMed | CLEA Japan Inc., Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. and Kobe University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cardiovascular drugs and therapy | Year: 2015

Recent reports showed a significant association between vitamin D levels and cardiovascular disease events and mortality. In the current study, we investigated the effect of the vitamin D receptor activator maxacalcitol (OCT) on cardiac damage in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.At 20 weeks of age, the rats were divided into three groups: vehicle-treated (DM), insulin-treated (INS) and OCT-treated (OCT). At 30 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and urinary and blood biochemical analyses and cardiac histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. To evaluate the effect of OCT on the renin-angiotensin system, we performed a further study using aliskiren (ALS). At 20 weeks, the diabetic rats were divided into two groups: the ALS-treated group (ALS) and the ALS plus OCT-treated group (ALS+OCT), and we evaluated the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and cardiac lesions at 30 weeks.At 30 weeks, despite comparable blood pressure and renal function, heart volume, intracardiac oxidative stress by immunohistological analysis, cardiac and perivascular fibrosis and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels were significantly decreased in the OCT group compared to the DM group. mRNA expressions of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) p47 subunit and cardiac injury-related markers in the heart were also significantly decreased in the OCT group compared to the DM group. The cardioprotective effect of OCT was preserved even in the context of RAS inhibition.Our results suggest that OCT prevents the development of cardiac damage in DM, independent of RAS inhibition.

PubMed | CLEA Japan Inc., Tokai University, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. and Kobe University
Type: | Journal: Bone | Year: 2015

Active vitamin D is a major therapeutic agent for bone disease. Although some studies have reported that vitamin D ameliorates bone disease related to diabetes, the mechanism remains unclear. Our study investigated the effect of the vitamin D receptor activator 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT) on bone disease in a rat model of diabetes. OCT was administered at a dose of 0.2g/kg three times per week for 10weeks. We performed blood and urine analyses, single energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, and oxidative stress assessment in rats at 30weeks of age. OCT did not affect hemoglobin A1c or serum calcium levels. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume in the cortical and trabecular bones, and bone turnover were decreased in rats with diabetes. OCT treatment increased BMD and bone formation and tended to increase bone volume in the trabecular bone, but did not change bone volume in the cortical bone or bone resorption. The urinary oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion and the number of 8-OHdG-positive cells in bone were increased in rats with diabetes, and OCT treatment suppressed these increases. Our data suggest that OCT attenuated bone loss in a rat model of diabetes. This attenuation may be partially mediated by improved bone formation resulting from the antioxidative effect of OCT.

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