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Shishkova S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Las Penas M.L.,CONICET | Napsucialy-Mendivil S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Matvienko M.,CLC Bio | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Botany

Background and AimsSpecies of Cactaceae are well adapted to arid habitats. Determinate growth of the primary root, which involves early and complete root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion and differentiation of cells at the root tip, has been reported for some Cactoideae species as a root adaptation to aridity. In this study, the primary root growth patterns of Cactaceae taxa from diverse habitats are classified as being determinate or indeterminate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying RAM maintenance in Cactaceae are explored. Genes that were induced in the primary root of Stenocereus gummosus before RAM exhaustion are identified.MethodsPrimary root growth was analysed in Cactaceae seedlings cultivated in vertically oriented Petri dishes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified after reverse northern blots of clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library.Key ResultsAll species analysed from six tribes of the Cactoideae subfamily that inhabit arid and semi-arid regions exhibited determinate primary root growth. However, species from the Hylocereeae tribe, which inhabit mesic regions, exhibited mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Preliminary results suggest that seedlings of members of the Opuntioideae subfamily have mostly determinate primary root growth, whereas those of the Maihuenioideae and Pereskioideae subfamilies have mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Seven selected transcripts encoding homologues of heat stress transcription factor B4, histone deacetylase, fibrillarin, phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, cytochrome P450 and gibberellin-regulated protein were upregulated in S. gummosus root tips during the initial growth phase.ConclusionsPrimary root growth in Cactoideae species matches their environment. The data imply that determinate growth of the primary root became fixed after separation of the Cactiodeae/Opuntioideae and Maihuenioideae/Pereskioideae lineages, and that the genetic regulation of RAM maintenance and its loss in Cactaceae is orchestrated by genes involved in the regulation of gene expression, signalling, and redox and hormonal responses. © 2013 © The Author. Source

Oliveira C.L.P.,University of Aarhus | Juul S.,University of Aarhus | Jorgensen H.L.,University of Aarhus | Knudsen B.,CLC Bio | And 8 more authors.
ACS Nano

The assembly, structure, and stability of DNA nanocages with the shape of truncated octahedra have been studied. The cages are composed of 12 double-stranded B-DNA helices interrupted by single-stranded linkers of thymidines of varying length that constitute the truncated corners of the structure. The structures assemble with a high efficiency in a one-step procedure, compared to previously published structures of similar complexity. The structures of the cages were determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. With increasing linker length, there is a systematic increase of the cage size and decrease of the twist angle of the double helices with respect to the symmetry planes of the cage structure. In the present study, we demonstrate the length of the single-stranded linker regions, which impose a certain degree of flexibility to the structure, to be the important determinant for efficient assembly. The linker length can be decreased to three thymidines without affecting assembly yield or the overall structural characteristics of the DNA cages. A linker length of two thymidines represents a sharp cutoff abolishing cage assembly. This is supported by energy minimization calculations suggesting substantial hydrogen bond deformation in a cage with linkers of two thymidines. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Krampis K.,J. Craig Venter Institute | Booth T.,CEH Wallingford | Chapman B.,Harvard University | Tiwari B.,CLC Bio | And 3 more authors.
BMC Bioinformatics

Background: A steep drop in the cost of next-generation sequencing during recent years has made the technology affordable to the majority of researchers, but downstream bioinformatic analysis still poses a resource bottleneck for smaller laboratories and institutes that do not have access to substantial computational resources. Sequencing instruments are typically bundled with only the minimal processing and storage capacity required for data capture during sequencing runs. Given the scale of sequence datasets, scientific value cannot be obtained from acquiring a sequencer unless it is accompanied by an equal investment in informatics infrastructure.Results: Cloud BioLinux is a publicly accessible Virtual Machine (VM) that enables scientists to quickly provision on-demand infrastructures for high-performance bioinformatics computing using cloud platforms. Users have instant access to a range of pre-configured command line and graphical software applications, including a full-featured desktop interface, documentation and over 135 bioinformatics packages for applications including sequence alignment, clustering, assembly, display, editing, and phylogeny. Each tool's functionality is fully described in the documentation directly accessible from the graphical interface of the VM. Besides the Amazon EC2 cloud, we have started instances of Cloud BioLinux on a private Eucalyptus cloud installed at the J. Craig Venter Institute, and demonstrated access to the bioinformatic tools interface through a remote connection to EC2 instances from a local desktop computer. Documentation for using Cloud BioLinux on EC2 is available from our project website, while a Eucalyptus cloud image and VirtualBox Appliance is also publicly available for download and use by researchers with access to private clouds.Conclusions: Cloud BioLinux provides a platform for developing bioinformatics infrastructures on the cloud. An automated and configurable process builds Virtual Machines, allowing the development of highly customized versions from a shared code base. This shared community toolkit enables application specific analysis platforms on the cloud by minimizing the effort required to prepare and maintain them. © 2012 Krampis et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Seabury C.M.,Texas A&M University | Dowd S.E.,Molecular Research LP | Seabury P.M.,ElanTech Inc. | Raudsepp T.,Texas A&M University | And 7 more authors.

Data deposition to NCBI Genomes:This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AMXX00000000 (SMACv1.0, unscaffolded genome assembly). The version described in this paper is the first version (AMXX01000000). The scaffolded assembly (SMACv1.1) has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AOUJ00000000, and is also the first version (AOUJ01000000). Strong biological interest in traits such as the acquisition and utilization of speech, cognitive abilities, and longevity catalyzed the utilization of two next-generation sequencing platforms to provide the first-draft de novo genome assembly for the large, new world parrot Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw). Despite the challenges associated with genome assembly for an outbred avian species, including 951,507 high-quality putative single nucleotide polymorphisms, the final genome assembly (>1.035 Gb) includes more than 997 Mb of unambiguous sequence data (excluding N's). Cytogenetic analyses including ZooFISH revealed complex rearrangements associated with two scarlet macaw macrochromosomes (AMA6, AMA7), which supports the hypothesis that translocations, fusions, and intragenomic rearrangements are key factors associated with karyotype evolution among parrots. In silico annotation of the scarlet macaw genome provided robust evidence for 14,405 nuclear gene annotation models, their predicted transcripts and proteins, and a complete mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses involving the scarlet macaw, chicken, and zebra finch genomes revealed high levels of nucleotide-based conservation as well as evidence for overall genome stability among the three highly divergent species. Application of a new whole-genome analysis of divergence involving all three species yielded prioritized candidate genes and noncoding regions for parrot traits of interest (i.e., speech, intelligence, longevity) which were independently supported by the results of previous human GWAS studies. We also observed evidence for genes and noncoding loci that displayed extreme conservation across the three avian lineages, thereby reflecting their likely biological and developmental importance among birds. © 2013 Seabury et al. Source

Gookin T.E.,Pennsylvania State University | Bendtsen J.D.,CLC Bio
Methods in Molecular Biology

Genomic sequencing has provided a vast resource for identifying interesting genes, but often an exact "gene-of-interest" is unknown and is only described as putatively present in a genome by an observed phenotype, or by the known presence of a conserved signaling cascade, such as that facilitated by the heterotrimeric G-protein. The low sequence similarity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the absence of a known ligand with an associated high-throughput screening system in plants hampers their identification by simple BLAST queries or brute force experimental assays. Combinatorial bioinformatic analysis is useful in that it can reduce a large pool of possible candidates to a number manageable by medium or even low-throughput methods. Here we describe a method for the bioinformatic identification of candidate GPCRs from whole proteomes and their subsequent in vivo analysis for G-protein coupling using a membrane based yeast two-hybrid variant (Gookin et al., Genome Biol 9:R120, 2008). Rather than present the bioinformatic process in a format requiring scripts or computer programming knowledge, we describe procedures here in a simple, biologist-friendly outline that only utilizes the basic syntax of regular expressions. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013. Source

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