Clausthal - Zellerfeld, Germany

Clausthal University of Technology

www.tu-clausthal.de
Clausthal - Zellerfeld, Germany

The Clausthal University of Technology is an institute of technology in Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Lower Saxony, Germany. The small public university is regularly ranked among the Top German universities in engineering by CHE University Rankings.More than 30% of students and 20% of academic staff come from abroad, making it one of the most international universities in Germany.The university is best known for the prominent corporate leaders among its former students. In 2011, five of the 30 leading companies within the German stock index had alumni of TUC on their management board. Two of them as CEO.The Department of Computational Intelligence is hosting the annual Multi-Agent Programming Contest. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Novaled GmbH and Clausthal University of Technology | Date: 2017-03-29

The present invention relates to an organic electroluminescent device comprising at least one semiconductive layer comprising a compound of formula (I)wherein R^(1), R^(3) and R^(7) are independently selected from a group consisting of H, D, C_(1)-C_(16) alkyl and C_(1)-C_(16) alkoxy;R^(2), R^(4), R^(5) and R^(6) are independently selected from a group consisting of H, D, C_(1)-C_(16) alkyl, C_(1)-C_(16) alkoxy and C_(6)-C_(20) aryl;Ar^(1) is selected from substituted or unsubstituted C_(6)-C_(20) aryl, wherein, in case that Ar^(1) is substituted, the substituents are independently selected from a group consisting of D, C_(1)-C_(12) alkyl, C_(1)-C_(16) alkoxy and C_(6)-C_(20) aryl;and Ar^(2) is selected from a group consisting of H, D, substituted or unsubstituted C_(6)-C_(40) aryl andspecific dibenzooxane and dibenzofuran derivaties.


News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: phys.org

The system relies on oxide materials similar to those used in many of today's rechargeable batteries, in that ions move in and out of the material during charging and discharging cycles. Whether the ions are lithium ions, in the case of lithium ion batteries, or oxygen ions, in the case of the oxide materials, their reversible motion causes the material to expand and contract. Such expansion and contraction can be a major issue affecting the usable lifetime of a battery or fuel cell, as the repeated changes in volume can cause cracks to form, potentially leading to short-circuits or degraded performance. But for high-temperature actuators, these volume changes are a desired result rather than an unwelcome side effect. The findings are described in a report appearing this week in the journal Nature Materials, by Jessica Swallow, an MIT graduate student; Krystyn Van Vliet, the Michael (1949) and Sonja Koerner Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Harry Tuller, professor of materials science and engineering; and five others. "The most interesting thing about these materials is that they function at temperatures above 500 degrees Celsius," Swallow explains. That suggests that their predictable bending motions could be harnessed, for example, for maintenance robotics inside a nuclear reactor, or actuators inside jet engines or spacecraft engines. By coupling these oxide materials with other materials whose dimensions remain constant, it is possible to make actuators that bend when the oxide expands or contracts. This action is similar to the way bimetallic strips work in thermostats, where heating causes one metal to expand more than another that is bonded to it, leading the bonded strip to bend. For these tests, the researchers used a compound dubbed PCO, for praseodymium-doped cerium oxide. Conventional materials used to create motion by applying electricity, such as piezoelectric devices, don't work nearly as well at such high temperatures, so the new system could open up a new area of high-temperature sensors and actuators. Such devices could be used, for example, to open and close valves in these hot environments, the researchers say. Van Vliet says the finding was made possible as a result of a high-resolution, probe-based mechanical measurement system for high-temperature conditions that she and her co-workers have developed over the years. The system provides "precision measurements of material motion that here relate directly to oxygen levels," she says, enabling researchers to measure exactly how the oxygen is cycling in and out of the metal oxide. To make these measurements, scientists begin by depositing a thin layer of metal oxide on a substrate, then use the detection system, which can measure small displacements on a scale of nanometers, or billionths of a meter. "These materials are special," she says, "because they 'breathe' oxygen in and out, and change volume, and that causes the substrate to bend." While they demonstrated the process using one particular oxide compound, the researchers say the findings could apply broadly to a variety of oxide materials, and even to other kinds of ions in addition to oxygen, moving in and out of the oxide layer. These findings "are highly significant, since they demonstrate and explain the chemical expansion of thin films at high temperatures," says Holger Fritze, a professor at the Clausthal University of Technology in Germany, who was not involved in this work. "Such systems show large strain in comparison to other high-temperature stable materials, thereby enabling new applications including high-temperature actuators," he says. "The approach used here is very novel," says Brian Sheldon, a professor of engineering at Brown University, who also was not involved in this research. "As the authors have pointed out, this approach can provide information that differs from that obtained with other methods that are employed to investigate chemical expansion." This work has two important features, Sheldon says: It provides important basic information about the chemical expansion of such materials, and it opens the possibility of new kinds of high-temperature actuators. "I think that both are very important accomplishments," he says. Explore further: Thin layers of water hold promise for the energy storage of the future More information: Jessica G. Swallow et al. Dynamic chemical expansion of thin-film non-stoichiometric oxides at extreme temperatures, Nature Materials (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nmat4898


News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Carrying out maintenance tasks inside a nuclear plant puts severe strains on equipment, due to extreme temperatures that are hard for components to endure without degrading. Now, researchers at MIT and elsewhere have come up with a radically new way to make actuators that could be used in such extremely hot environments. The system relies on oxide materials similar to those used in many of today’s rechargeable batteries, in that ions move in and out of the material during charging and discharging cycles. Whether the ions are lithium ions, in the case of lithium ion batteries, or oxygen ions, in the case of the oxide materials, their reversible motion causes the material to expand and contract. Such expansion and contraction can be a major issue affecting the usable lifetime of a battery or fuel cell, as the repeated changes in volume can cause cracks to form, potentially leading to short-circuits or degraded performance. But for high-temperature actuators, these volume changes are a desired result rather than an unwelcome side effect. The findings are described in a report appearing this week in the journal Nature Materials, by Jessica Swallow, an MIT graduate student; Krystyn Van Vliet, the Michael (1949) and Sonja Koerner Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Harry Tuller, professor of materials science and engineering; and five others. “The most interesting thing about these materials is that they function at temperatures above 500 degrees Celsius,” Swallow explains. That suggests that their predictable bending motions could be harnessed, for example, for maintenance robotics inside a nuclear reactor, or actuators inside jet engines or spacecraft engines. By coupling these oxide materials with other materials whose dimensions remain constant, it is possible to make actuators that bend when the oxide expands or contracts. This action is similar to the way bimetallic strips work in thermostats, where heating causes one metal to expand more than another that is bonded to it, leading the bonded strip to bend. For these tests, the researchers used a compound dubbed PCO, for praseodymium-doped cerium oxide. Conventional materials used to create motion by applying electricity, such as piezoelectric devices, don’t work nearly as well at such high temperatures, so the new system could open up a new area of high-temperature sensors and actuators. Such devices could be used, for example, to open and close valves in these hot environments, the researchers say. Van Vliet says the finding was made possible as a result of a high-resolution, probe-based mechanical measurement system for high-temperature conditions that she and her co-workers have developed over the years. The system provides “precision measurements of material motion that here relate directly to oxygen levels,” she says, enabling researchers to measure exactly how the oxygen is cycling in and out of the metal oxide. To make these measurements, scientists begin by depositing a thin layer of metal oxide on a substrate, then use the detection system, which can measure small displacements on a scale of nanometers, or billionths of a meter. “These materials are special,” she says, “because they ‘breathe’ oxygen in and out, and change volume, and that causes the substrate to bend.” While they demonstrated the process using one particular oxide compound, the researchers say the findings could apply broadly to a variety of oxide materials, and even to other kinds of ions in addition to oxygen, moving in and out of the oxide layer. These findings “are highly significant, since they demonstrate and explain the chemical expansion of thin films at high temperatures,” says Holger Fritze, a professor at the Clausthal University of Technology in Germany, who was not involved in this work. “Such systems show large strain in comparison to other high-temperature stable materials, thereby enabling new applications including high-temperature actuators,” he says. “The approach used here is very novel,” says Brian Sheldon, a professor of engineering at Brown University, who also was not involved in this research. “As the authors have pointed out, this approach can provide information that differs from that obtained with other methods that are employed to investigate chemical expansion.” This work has two important features, Sheldon says: It provides important basic information about the chemical expansion of such materials, and it opens the possibility of new kinds of high-temperature actuators. “I think that both are very important accomplishments,” he says.


News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Carrying out maintenance tasks inside a nuclear plant puts severe strains on equipment, due to extreme temperatures that are hard for components to endure without degrading. Now, researchers at MIT and elsewhere have come up with a radically new way to make actuators that could be used in such extremely hot environments. The system relies on oxide materials similar to those used in many of today’s rechargeable batteries, in that ions move in and out of the material during charging and discharging cycles. Whether the ions are lithium ions, in the case of lithium ion batteries, or oxygen ions, in the case of the oxide materials, their reversible motion causes the material to expand and contract. Such expansion and contraction can be a major issue affecting the usable lifetime of a battery or fuel cell, as the repeated changes in volume can cause cracks to form, potentially leading to short-circuits or degraded performance. But for high-temperature actuators, these volume changes are a desired result rather than an unwelcome side effect. The findings are described in a report appearing this week in the journal Nature Materials, by Jessica Swallow, an MIT graduate student; Krystyn Van Vliet, the Michael (1949) and Sonja Koerner Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Harry Tuller, professor of materials science and engineering; and five others. “The most interesting thing about these materials is that they function at temperatures above 500 degrees Celsius,” Swallow explains. That suggests that their predictable bending motions could be harnessed, for example, for maintenance robotics inside a nuclear reactor, or actuators inside jet engines or spacecraft engines. By coupling these oxide materials with other materials whose dimensions remain constant, it is possible to make actuators that bend when the oxide expands or contracts. This action is similar to the way bimetallic strips work in thermostats, where heating causes one metal to expand more than another that is bonded to it, leading the bonded strip to bend. For these tests, the researchers used a compound dubbed PCO, for praseodymium-doped cerium oxide. Conventional materials used to create motion by applying electricity, such as piezoelectric devices, don’t work nearly as well at such high temperatures, so the new system could open up a new area of high-temperature sensors and actuators. Such devices could be used, for example, to open and close valves in these hot environments, the researchers say. Van Vliet says the finding was made possible as a result of a high-resolution, probe-based mechanical measurement system for high-temperature conditions that she and her co-workers have developed over the years. The system provides “precision measurements of material motion that here relate directly to oxygen levels,” she says, enabling researchers to measure exactly how the oxygen is cycling in and out of the metal oxide. To make these measurements, scientists begin by depositing a thin layer of metal oxide on a substrate, then use the detection system, which can measure small displacements on a scale of nanometers, or billionths of a meter. “These materials are special,” she says, “because they ‘breathe’ oxygen in and out, and change volume, and that causes the substrate to bend.” While they demonstrated the process using one particular oxide compound, the researchers say the findings could apply broadly to a variety of oxide materials, and even to other kinds of ions in addition to oxygen, moving in and out of the oxide layer. These findings “are highly significant, since they demonstrate and explain the chemical expansion of thin films at high temperatures,” says Holger Fritze, a professor at the Clausthal University of Technology in Germany, who was not involved in this work. “Such systems show large strain in comparison to other high-temperature stable materials, thereby enabling new applications including high-temperature actuators,” he says. “The approach used here is very novel,” says Brian Sheldon, a professor of engineering at Brown University, who also was not involved in this research. “As the authors have pointed out, this approach can provide information that differs from that obtained with other methods that are employed to investigate chemical expansion.” This work has two important features, Sheldon says: It provides important basic information about the chemical expansion of such materials, and it opens the possibility of new kinds of high-temperature actuators. “I think that both are very important accomplishments,” he says.


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: news.mit.edu

Carrying out maintenance tasks inside a nuclear plant puts severe strains on equipment, due to extreme temperatures that are hard for components to endure without degrading. Now, researchers at MIT and elsewhere have come up with a radically new way to make actuators that could be used in such extremely hot environments. The system relies on oxide materials similar to those used in many of today’s rechargeable batteries, in that ions move in and out of the material during charging and discharging cycles. Whether the ions are lithium ions, in the case of lithium ion batteries, or oxygen ions, in the case of the oxide materials, their reversible motion causes the material to expand and contract. Such expansion and contraction can be a major issue affecting the usable lifetime of a battery or fuel cell, as the repeated changes in volume can cause cracks to form, potentially leading to short-circuits or degraded performance. But for high-temperature actuators, these volume changes are a desired result rather than an unwelcome side effect. The findings are described in a report appearing this week in the journal Nature Materials, by Jessica Swallow, an MIT graduate student; Krystyn Van Vliet, the Michael (1949) and Sonja Koerner Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Harry Tuller, professor of materials science and engineering; and five others. “The most interesting thing about these materials is that they function at temperatures above 500 degrees Celsius,” Swallow explains. That suggests that their predictable bending motions could be harnessed, for example, for maintenance robotics inside a nuclear reactor, or actuators inside jet engines or spacecraft engines. By coupling these oxide materials with other materials whose dimensions remain constant, it is possible to make actuators that bend when the oxide expands or contracts. This action is similar to the way bimetallic strips work in thermostats, where heating causes one metal to expand more than another that is bonded to it, leading the bonded strip to bend. For these tests, the researchers used a compound dubbed PCO, for praseodymium-doped cerium oxide. Conventional materials used to create motion by applying electricity, such as piezoelectric devices, don’t work nearly as well at such high temperatures, so the new system could open up a new area of high-temperature sensors and actuators. Such devices could be used, for example, to open and close valves in these hot environments, the researchers say. Van Vliet says the finding was made possible as a result of a high-resolution, probe-based mechanical measurement system for high-temperature conditions that she and her co-workers have developed over the years. The system provides “precision measurements of material motion that here relate directly to oxygen levels,” she says, enabling researchers to measure exactly how the oxygen is cycling in and out of the metal oxide. To make these measurements, scientists begin by depositing a thin layer of metal oxide on a substrate, then use the detection system, which can measure small displacements on a scale of nanometers, or billionths of a meter. “These materials are special,” she says, “because they ‘breathe’ oxygen in and out, and change volume, and that causes the substrate to bend.” While they demonstrated the process using one particular oxide compound, the researchers say the findings could apply broadly to a variety of oxide materials, and even to other kinds of ions in addition to oxygen, moving in and out of the oxide layer. These findings “are highly significant, since they demonstrate and explain the chemical expansion of thin films at high temperatures,” says Holger Fritze, a professor at the Clausthal University of Technology in Germany, who was not involved in this work. “Such systems show large strain in comparison to other high-temperature stable materials, thereby enabling new applications including high-temperature actuators,” he says. “The approach used here is very novel,” says Brian Sheldon, a professor of engineering at Brown University, who also was not involved in this research. “As the authors have pointed out, this approach can provide information that differs from that obtained with other methods that are employed to investigate chemical expansion.” This work has two important features, Sheldon says: It provides important basic information about the chemical expansion of such materials, and it opens the possibility of new kinds of high-temperature actuators. “I think that both are very important accomplishments,” he says. The research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Science Small Research Grants Program and used shared facilities provided by the National Science Foundation’s MRSEC Program.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-30-2015 | Award Amount: 8.00M | Year: 2016

The objective of the BIG IoT project is to ignite really vibrant Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystems. We will achieve this by bridging the current interoperability gap between the vertically integrated IoT platforms and by creating marketplaces for IoT services and applications. Despite various research and innovation projects working on the Internet of Things, no broadly accepted professional IoT ecosystems exist. The reason for that are high market entry barriers for developers and service providers due to a fragmentation of IoT platforms. The goal of this project is to overcome these hurdles by Bridging the Interoperability Gap of the IoT and by creating marketplaces for service and application providers as well as platform operators. We will address the interoperability gap by defining a generic, unified Web API for smart object platforms, called the BIG IoT API. The establishment of a marketplace where platform, application, and service providers can monetize their assets will introduce an incentive to grant access to formerly closed systems and lower market entry barriers for developers. The BIG IoT consortium is well suited to reach the outlined goals, as it comprises all roles of an IoT ecosystem: resource providers (e.g., SIEMENS, SEAT), service and application developers (e.g., VODAFONE, VMZ), marketplace providers (e.g., ATOS), platform providers (e.g., BOSCH, CSI, ECONAIS), as well as end users connected through the public private partnerships of WAG and CSI or the user-focused information services that VMZ provides for the city of Berlin. The major industry players cover multiple domains, including mobility, automotive, telecommunications, and IT services. Four university departments will help to transfer the state of the art into the state of the practice and solve the open research challenges. This consortium will mobilise the necessary critical mass at European level to achieve the goals and to reach the ireach the impacts set out in this project.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC5-16-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 1.54M | Year: 2016

The project Towards a World Forum on Raw Materials (FORAM) will develop and set up an EU-based platform of international experts and stakeholders that will advance the idea of a World Forum on Raw Materials (WFRM) and enhance the international cooperation on raw material policies and investments. The global use of mineral resources has drastically increased and supply chains have become ever more complex. A number of global initiatives and organizations have been contributing to knowledge and information transfer, including the EC, UNEP International Resource Panel, the World Resources Forum, the World Material Forum, the OECD and others. It is widely felt that improved international resource transparency and governance would be beneficial for all, since it would lead to stability, predictability, resource-efficiency and hence a better foundation for competitiveness on a sustainable basis. The FORAM project will contribute to consolidate the efforts towards a more joint and coherent approach towards raw materials policies and investments worldwide, by closely working with the relevant stakeholders in industry, European and international organisations, governments, academia and civil society. Synergies with relevant EU Member States initiatives will be explored and fostered. The project will in particular seek to engage the participation of G20 Member countries and other countries active in the mining and other raw materials sectors, so that experiences will be shared and understanding of all aspects of trade in raw materials will be increased. By implementing this project an EU-based platform of international key experts and stakeholders is created, related to the entire raw materials value chain. This platform will work together on making the current complex maze of existing raw material related initiatives more effective. As such, the FORAM project will be the largest collaborative effort for raw materials strategy cooperation on a global level so far.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2013.3.2 | Award Amount: 2.86M | Year: 2014

This project combines European know-how in single cells, coatings, sealing, and stack design to produce a novel 1 kW SOFC stack of unprecedented performance, together with the proof of concept of a 10 kWe SOFC stack. Improvements over the state of the art in cost, performance, efficiency, and reliability will be proven, covering all top-level objectives mentioned in the topic. The stacks will be developed according to system integrators requirements guided by an industrial steering group. The target application of the development is stationary and residential combined heat and power production based on natural gas, and will form the basis for Elcogen Oys commercial SOFC stack technology. All manufacturing methods, stack designs, and materials are chosen so that they are suitable for mass production and enable 1000 /kW profitable stack price, which is a significant improvement to current state of the art. These methods, designs, and materials have been demonstrated successfully in small-scale and require the scale-up to suit manufacturing of 10 kWe SOFC stacks. For example, high performance of Elcogen cells and short stacks were already demonstrated with 100x100 mm2 cell size, but in this project cells and stack will be further improved and scaled up to larger 120x120 mm2 size. The project is based on the products of industrial partners and motivated by their interest to consolidate an optimized supply-chain and subsequently commercialize a high-performance product at very sharp prices. To this effect, the activity will pay great attention to designing the stack for mass production processes. One industrial partner is involved for each key function: Elcogen AS (cells), Elcogen Oy (stack assembly and production), Sandvik (interconnects and coatings), and Flexitallic Ltd (sealing). Selected research institutions complete the partnership to focus the development process towards a reliable product.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: NMP.2012.2.2-3 | Award Amount: 4.10M | Year: 2013

This project is focused to advance considerably the efficiency of power generation in gas turbine processes by the development of improved thermal barrier coated parts or components of significantly improved performance as well as software products providing optimized process parameters. The proposed project addresses the following scientific and technological issues: New TBC formulations with long-term stability, more resistant under extremely severe operating conditions (e.g. creep, fatigue, thermal-mechanical fatigue, oxidation and their interactions, at high service temperatures) thus the maximum application temperature will be higher (e.g.1450-1500oC) and so performance during energy generation. Flexible and cost effective production systems based mainly on thermal spray (SPS/SPPS, APS, HVOF) but also EB-PVD in order to realize patterned functional TBCs with improved properties. Application of structural analysis and fluid simulation software, including radiation, combustion, heat transfer, fluid-structure interactions and conjugate heat transfer models for the development of detailed models for the operational performance and prediction of spallation phenomena and failure. Environmentally friendly process using chemical formulations free of hazardous and toxic solvents. The aim of this project is the development of materials, methods and models suitable to fabricate, monitor, evaluate and predict the performance and overall energy efficiency of novel thermal barrier coatings for energy generative systems. By the radical improvement of the performance (working temperature, lifetime etc) of materials in service, by the application of novel thermal barrier coatings, structural design and computational fluid simulations a significant improvement in energy efficiency and cost effectiveness will be achieved.


Endres F.,Clausthal University of Technology
MRS Bulletin | Year: 2013

Ionic liquids are well suited to the electrochemical synthesis of freestanding metallic nanowires as well as macroporous metals and semiconductors. Such materials are potentially interesting for future generation Li-ion batteries. As the energy density of current Li-ion batteries barely exceeds 0.15 kWh/kg (in contrast to the 12 kWh/kg of hydrocarbons), there is a need for new anode and cathode materials if electrically driven cars are to have more than a 150 km cruising range at an affordable price. Freestanding aluminum nanowires and macroporous aluminum are easily feasible from AlCl3-based ionic liquids and show promising charge/discharge behavior even with ionic liquids as electrolytes. The challenges and the potential to make nanowires or macroporous structures of semiconductors (Si, Ge) are also briefly discussed. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

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