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Barba C.,University of Florence | Jacques T.,University College London | Kahane P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Polster T.,Bethel Epilepsy Center | And 12 more authors.
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2013

Epilepsy is relatively uncommon in patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and seizures are usually well controlled with antiepileptic treatment. However, pharmacoresistance has been reported in patients with NF1 and MRI evidence of malformations of cortical development or glioneuronal tumours. Available information on epilepsy surgery in NF1 is limited to a few patients with gliomas and glioneuronal tumours who underwent lesionectomies. We conducted a survey amongst 25 European epilepsy surgery centres to collect patients with NF1 who had undergone surgery for drug-resistant seizures and identified 12 patients from eight centres. MRI abnormalities were present in all patients but one. They were unilateral temporal in eight, bilateral temporal in one and multilobar or hemispheric in two. Seizures originated from the temporal lobe in ten patients, from the temporo-parieto-occipital region in one, and were bitemporal in one. One year after surgery eight patients were seizure free, one had worthwhile improvement and the remaining three had experienced no benefit. Postoperative outcome, available at 2 years in ten patients and at 5 years in three, remained stable in all but one whose seizures reappeared. Histology revealed dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) in five patients, hippocampal sclerosis in four, mixed pathology in one and polymicrogyria in one. No histological abnormality was observed in the remaining patient. Epilepsy surgery can be performed effectively in patients with NF1 provided a single and well-delimited epileptogenic zone is recognized. The high prevalence of DNETs in this series might suggest a non-fortuitous association with NF1. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Finardi A.,Neurological Institute C Besta | Colciaghi F.,Neurological Institute C Besta | Castana L.,Epilepsy Surgery Center Claudio Munari | Locatelli D.,Neurological Institute C Besta | And 7 more authors.
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2013

To investigate hypothesized effects of severe epilepsy on malformed cortex, we analyzed surgical samples from eight patients with type IIB focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in comparison with samples from nine non-dysplastic controls. We investigated, using stereological quantification methods, where appropriate, dysplastic neurons, neuronal density, balloon cells, glia, glutamatergic synaptic input, and the expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits and associated membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK). In all FCD patients, the dysplastic areas giving rise to epileptic discharges were characterized by larger dysmorphic neurons, reduced neuronal density, and increased glutamatergic inputs, compared to adjacent areas with normal cytology. The duration of epilepsy was found to correlate directly (a) with dysmorphic neuron size, (b) reduced neuronal cell density, and (c) extent of reactive gliosis in epileptogenic/dysplastic areas. Consistent with increased glutamatergic input, western blot revealed that NMDA regulatory subunits and related MAGUK proteins were up-regulated in epileptogenic/dysplastic areas of all FCD patients examined. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that epilepsy itself alters morphology - and probably also function - in the malformed epileptic brain. They also suggest that glutamate/NMDA/MAGUK dysregulation might be the intracellular trigger that modifies brain morphology and induces cell death. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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