Wolverton Mill, United Kingdom
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Searle L.E.J.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Jones G.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Tzortzis G.,Clasado Ltd. | Woodward M.J.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2012

Previous in vivo murine oral challenge studies have shown that the galactooligosaccharide containing product, BiMuno®, reduced colonisation of S. Typhimurium. To gain further insights into the mechanism of reduced colonisation, we wished to test the hypothesis that the low molecular weight fractions of BiMuno® or a specific low molecular weight fraction may have direct immuno-modulatory effects on murine macrophages. Cytokine responses of murine macrophages in response to the commercially available product, BiMuno®, a basal solution BiMuno® without GOS, purified low molecular weight fractions (referred to as GOS), and the individual fractions of GOS (DP2, 3 and ≥4, with each fraction representing the increasing degree of complex polymerisation) were determined in vitro and ex vivo. These studies demonstrated that BiMuno®, significantly stimulated both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in vitro (P≤ 0.0394). Furthermore, the data indicate that the low molecular weight fractions may be the primary stimulant of BiMuno® and specifically its tri (DP3) and ≥tetra-saccharide (DP ≥ 4) fractions (P≤ 0.0394). © 2012.


Prebiotic Ingredients (Inulins, Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and others) Market for Food and Beverages, Dietary Supplements and Animal Applications: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2014 – 2020 The report covers forecast and analysis for the prebiotic ingredients market on a global and regional level. The study provides historic data of 2014 along with a forecast from 2015 to 2020 based on both volumes (Kilo Tons) and revenue (USD Million). The study includes drivers and restraints for the prebiotic ingredients market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the prebiotic ingredients market on a global level. In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view on the prebiotics market, we have included a detailed competitive scenario, buying criteria and product portfolio of key vendors. To understand the competitive landscape in the market, an analysis of Porter’s five forces model for the prebiotic ingredients market has also been included. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein product segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness. The study provides a decisive view on the prebiotic ingredients market by segmenting the market based on ingredients, applications and regions. All the segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market is estimated from 2014 to 2020. Based on ingredients, prebiotic ingredients market can divided into inulins, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and others. Key application markets covered under this study includes the use of this food and beverages, dietary supplements and animal feed. The regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa with its further, Bifurcation into major countries including U.S., Germany, France, UK, China, Japan, India and Brazil. This segmentation includes demand for prebiotic ingredients based on individual technology and applications in all the regions and countries. The report covers detailed competitive outlook including the market share and company profiles of the key participants operating in the global prebiotic ingredients market include GTC Nutrition, Sensus, Clasado Ltd., Abbott Laboratories, BENEO-Orafti SA, Bright Food (Group) Corporation Limited, Cargill Incorporated, Cosucra Group Warcoing SA, Kraft Foods Group Inc., Friesland Campina Domo, Jarrow Formulas, Inc., Parmalat S.p.A., Roquette Freres, Royal Cosun, Yakult Honsha Co., Beghin Meiji, Stonyfield Farm, Jarrow, Roquette America and Kraft Foods, Inc. The detailed description of players includes parameters such as company overview, financial overview, business strategies and recent developments of the company. This report segments the global prebiotic ingredients market as follows:


Osman A.,University of Reading | Tzortzis G.,Clasado Ltd. | Rastall R.A.,University of Reading | Charalampopoulos D.,University of Reading
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The bifidobacterial β-galactosidase (BbgIV) was produced in E. coli DH5α at 37 and 30 °C in a 5 L bioreactor under varied conditions of dissolved oxygen (dO2) and pH. The yield of soluble BbgIV was significantly (P < 0.05) increased once the dO2 dropped to 0-2% and remained at such low values during the exponential phase. Limited dO2 significantly (P < 0.05) increased the plasmid copy number and decreased the cells growth rate. Consequently, the BbgIV yield increased to its maximum (71-75 mg per g dry cell weight), which represented 20-25% of the total soluble proteins in the cells. In addition, the specific activity and catalytic efficiency of BbgIV were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced under limited dO2 conditions. This was concomitant with a change in the enzyme secondary structure, suggesting a link between the enzyme structure and function. The knowledge generated from this work is very important for producing BbgIV as a biocatalyst for the development of a cost-effective process for the synthesis of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides from lactose. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Drakoularakou A.,University of Reading | Tzortzis G.,Clasado Ltd | Rastall R.A.,University of Reading | Gibson G.R.,University of Reading
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background/Objectives: Prebiotics have attracted interest for their ability to positively affect the colonic microbiota composition, thus increasing resistance to infection and diarrhoeal disease. This study assessed the effectiveness of a prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide mixture (B-GOS) on the severity and/or incidence of travellers' diarrhoea (TD) in healthy subjects.Subjects/Methods: The study was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind of parallel design in 159 healthy volunteers, who travelled for minimum of 2 weeks to a country of low or high risk for TD. The investigational product was the B-GOS and the placebo was maltodextrin. Volunteers were randomized into groups with an equal probability of receiving either the prebiotic or placebo. The protocol comprised of a 1 week pre-holiday period recording bowel habit, while receiving intervention and the holiday period. Bowel habit included the number of bowel movements and average consistency of the stools as well as occurrence of abdominal discomfort, flatulence, bloating or vomiting. A clinical report was completed in the case of diarrhoeal incidence. A post-study questionnaire was also completed by all subjects on their return. Results: Results showed significant differences between the B-GOS and the placebo group in the incidence (P<0.05) and duration (P<0.05) of TD. Similar findings occurred on abdominal pain (P<0.05) and the overall quality of life assessment (P<0.05). Conclusions: Consumption of the tested galacto-oligosaccharide mixture showed significant potential in preventing the incidence and symptoms of TD. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Osman A.,University of Reading | Symeou S.,University of Reading | Trisse V.,Montpellier University | Watson K.A.,University of Reading | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2014

The bifidobacterial β-galactosidase BbgIV was immobilised on DEAE-Cellulose and Q-Sepharose via ionic binding and on amino-ethyl- and glyoxal-agarose via covalent attachment, and was then used to catalyse the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The immobilisation yield exceeded 90% using ionic binding, while it was low using amino-ethyl agarose (25-28%) and very low using glyoxal agarose (<3%). This was due to the mild conditions and absence of chemical reagents in ionic binding, compared to covalent attachment. The maximum GOS yield obtained using DEAE-Cellulose and Q-Sepharose was similar to that obtained using free BbgIV (49-53%), indicating the absence of diffusion limitation and mass transfer issues. For amino-ethyl agarose, however, the GOS yield obtained was lower (42-44%) compared to that obtained using free BbgIV. All the supports tried significantly (P<. 0.05) increased the BbgIV operational stability and the GOS synthesis productivity up to 55. °C. Besides, six successive GOS synthesis batches were performed using BbgIV immobilised on Q-Sepharose; all resulted in similar GOS yields, indicating the possibility of developing a robust synthesis process. Overall, the GOS synthesis operation performance using BbgIV was improved by immobilising the enzyme onto solid supports, in particular on Q-Sepharose. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Costabile A.,University of Reading | Walton G.E.,University of Reading | Tzortzis G.,Clasado Ltd | Vulevic J.,Clasado Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Gut Microbes | Year: 2015

Prebiotics are dietary carbohydrates that favourably modulate the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to develop a functional prebiotic bread using Bimuno, (galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) mixture), for modulation of the gut microbiota in vitro in individuals at risk of metabolic syndrome. A control bread, (no added prebiotic) and positive control bread (containing equivalent carbohydrate to B-GOS bread) were also developed. A 3-stage continuous in vitro colonic model was used to assess prebiotic functionality of the breads. Bacteria were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. Ion-exchange chromatography was used to determine GOS concentration after bread production. Following B-GOS bread fermentation numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher compared to controls. There was no significant degradation of B-GOS during bread manufacture, indicating GOS withstood the manufacturing process. Furthermore, based on previous research, increased bifidobacteria and butyrate levels could be of benefit to those with obesity related conditions. Our findings support utilization of prebiotic enriched bread for improving gastrointestinal health. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Osman A.,University of Reading | Tzortzis G.,Clasado Ltd. | Rastall R.A.,University of Reading | Charalampopoulos D.,University of Reading
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The individual contributions of four β-galactosidases present in Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171 toward galactooligosaccharide (GOS) synthesis were investigated. Although the β-galactosidase activity of the whole cells significantly decreased as a function of temperature (40-75 °C), GOS yield was at its maximum at 65 °C. Native-PAGE of the whole cells showed that the contributions of BbgIII and BbgIV to GOS synthesis increased as the temperature increased. Moreover, BbgIII and BbgIV were found to be more temperature stable and to produce a higher GOS yield than BbgI and BbgII, when used in their free form. The GOS yield using BbgIV was 54.8% (percent of total carbohydrates) and 63.9% (percent lactose converted to GOS) at 65 °C from 43% w/w lactose. It was shown that BbgIV is the most important β-galactosidase in B. bifidum NCIMB 41171 and can be used for GOS synthesis at elevated temperatures. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Osman A.,University of Reading | Tzortzis G.,Clasado Ltd. | Rastall R.A.,University of Reading | Charalampopoulos D.,University of Reading
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) by whole cells of Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171 was investigated by developing a set of mathematical models. These were second order polynomial equations, which described responses related to the production of GOS constituents, the selectivity of lactose conversion into GOS, and the relative composition of the produced GOS mixture, as a function of the amount of biocatalyst, temperature, initial lactose concentration, and time. The synthesis reactions were followed for up to 36. h. Samples were withdrawn every 4. h, tested for β-galactosidase activity, and analysed for their carbohydrate content. GOS synthesis was well explained by the models, which were all significant (P<0.001). The GOS yield increased as temperature increased from 40°C to 60°C, as transgalactosylation became more pronounced compared to hydrolysis. The relative composition of GOS produced changed significantly with the initial lactose concentration (P<0.001); higher ratios of tri-, tetra-, and penta-galactooligosaccharides to transgalactosylated disaccharides were obtained as lactose concentration increased. Time was a critical factor, as a balanced state between GOS synthesis and hydrolysis was roughly attained in most cases between 12 and 20. h, and was followed by more pronounced GOS hydrolysis than synthesis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


A galactooligosaccharide composition comprising a mixture of disaccharides, trisaccharides, a tetrasaccharide and a pentasaccharide for use in preventing or treating cognitive dysfunction and/or emotional disturbances in neuropsychiatric illnesses or ageing.


Trademark
Clasado Inc. | Date: 2014-11-14

Chemical additives for use in the manufacture of cosmetics; prebiotics used in the manufacture of cosmetics. Non-medicated skin care preparation ingredient sold as a component of non-medicated skin care preparations. Nutritional supplements in lotion/powder form sold as a component of nutritional skin care products; pharmaceutical products, namely a dietary supplements to be used for the enhancement and/or maintenance of general health; nutritional and dietary supplements; nutritional and dietary additives, namely, a prebiotic for use in food and dietary supplements for human consumption.

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