Clarkson University is a private research university located in Potsdam, New York. It was founded in 1896 and has an enrollment of about 3,700 students studying toward bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in each of its schools or institutes: the Institute for a Sustainable Environment, the School of Arts & science, the School of Business and the Wallace H. Coulter School of Engineering. Clarkson University ranks #14 among "Best Engineering Colleges By Salary Potential". The Carnegie foundation classified Clarkson University as "High Research Activity" institution. Wikipedia.
Clarkson University | Date: 2016-10-17
A miniature electrical-mobility aerosol spectrometer comprising a 3D-printed body comprising: (i) a single inlet section configured to receive particles to be evaluated by the spectrometer; (ii) an electrostatic precipitator section coupled to the electrostatic precipitator section; (iii) a classifier section, wherein the electrostatic precipitator section is coupled to the classifier section; and (iv) an outlet, wherein the classifier section is coupled to the outlet; a high voltage classifier plate positioned within the classifier section; and a classifier component positioned within the classifier section opposite the high voltage classifier plate, wherein the classifier component comprises sensing circuitry configured to detect particles in the classifier section, and wherein the classifier section comprises a two-sided printed circuit board, wherein the two-sided printed circuit board comprises the sensing circuitry, and wherein a first side of the two-sided printed circuit board comprises a plurality of printed collection plates.
Xerox and Clarkson University | Date: 2015-10-05
A charge control agent-silicone oil composition includes a silicone oil and a charge control agent, the charge control agent being covalently linked to the silicone oil or is homogenously dispersed in the silicone oil as a dispersion. A method includes reacting an electrophilically-activated silicone oil with a charge control agent, thereby covalently linking the charge control agent to the silicone oil to provide a charge control agent-functionalized silicone oil. A bio-based toner includes a resin blend that includes a petroleum based resin and a bio-based resin, a charge control agent-silicone oil, a colorant, and a silica and/or titania additive, the toner having a bio-content of greater than about 25% by weight and does not exhibit moisture sensitivity.
Clarkson University | Date: 2016-11-18
A wind energy extraction apparatus utilizing a separate surface enclosing the turbine rotor is disclosed. An embodiment of the present invention includes a slotted and un-slotted duct of specified geometry enclosing a wind turbine rotor in such a manner as to provide acceleration of the ambient air though the rotor at a velocity above that which an open rotor exposed to the freestream would experience, thereby resulting in an increased amount of energy extraction relative to a comparable open rotor. In one aspect, the wind turbine rotor is positioned in the duct at a location downstream of the smallest cross-sectional area of the duct as this will provide the maximum power output. According to another aspect, the rotor geometry is such as to incorporate the effect of the duct on the incoming wind velocity profile.
Clarkson University | Date: 2016-11-14
An electrode of an energy storage device and methods of fabrication are provided which include: pyrolyzing a carbon-containing precursor to form a stabilized-carbonized material; and annealing the stabilized-carbonized material to form a structurally-modified activated carbon material. The structurally-modified activated carbon material includes a tunable pore size distribution and an electrochemically-active surface area. The electrochemically-active surface area of the structurally-modified activated carbon material is greater than a surface area of graphene having at least one layer, the surface area of the graphene having at least one layer being about 2630 m^(2 )g^(1).
Clarkson University | Date: 2017-01-30
A method for localization of a target device within an environment, the method comprising the steps of: (i) receiving, by a target device, a plurality of wireless signals transmitted from one or more anchor devices within the environment; (ii) determining, by a target device, a received signal strength indication for at least some of the received plurality of wireless signals; (iii) estimating, based on the determined received signal strength indications, a distance from the target device to each of the one or more anchor devices from which a wireless signal was received; and (iv) estimating, based on the estimated distances, a location of the target device within the environment.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: PLASMA PHYSICS | Award Amount: 450.00K | Year: 2016
This project focuses on improving the understanding of the fundamental processes that occur at or near interfaces of a plasma, a cloud of ionized gas composed of electrons, ions and neutral particles, and a liquid. A plasma that is created above or within a liquid can have a number of uses. For example, plasma discharges have been used to sterilize water, fruit juices, and milk, to remove harmful chemicals from water, to create new materials, and for medical applications. Some cancer-causing pollutants found in the environment can only be treated using plasmas. In material processing technologies plasmas formed directly in liquids that do not contain water, such as alcohols, can transform these liquids into different useful products including carbon nanotubes, a material with unique properties that is currently used in a wide variety of electronics. A better understanding of the physical and chemical processes near the plasma-liquid interface will not only help to improve the existing plasma-based processes, but will also open new applications in biomedicine, agriculture, energy, green chemistry and pollutant mitigation.
The region near the plasma-liquid interface exhibits complex dynamics that depend on the formation of reactive radicals, ions and high energy electrons, their transport across the interface, and the physics of the bulk fluid motion for mixing and transport. These processes are interrelated and incorporate both physical and chemical dynamics. The overall goal of this research project is to determine relationships between the physical and chemical processes occurring at the plasma-liquid interface in a system where the plasma discharge contacts the liquid surface. Two specific goals of this study are to: (1) Correlate the bulk liquid transport processes with the plasma-liquid interface dynamics and (2) Determine the significance of the plasma excited species transport in the kinetics of interfacial processes. The approach for achieving the goals of this multidisciplinary study is to identify degradation mechanisms of several compounds of interest and apply quantitative optical diagnostic tools (i.e. Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser-Induced Fluorescence) to understand the physics at the interface as well as the role bulk liquid transport plays in the dynamics of the degradation process. Further, molecular dynamics simulations will be performed to develop a quantitative understanding of the microstructure of the studied compounds at the gas-liquid interface.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Service, Manufacturing, and Op | Award Amount: 203.62K | Year: 2017
The electricity grid and the natural gas network are two essential infrastructure systems in the U.S. energy industry. They are designed and managed independently. However, because of the planned retirement of many coal-fired generators, the deeper penetration of renewable energy sources, and the commercially sustainable gas price, their interactions have intensified over the last five years. Hence, in order to ensure environmentally friendly, reliable, and cost-effective electricity and gas production and delivery, it is important to jointly optimize these two systems. However, due to their scales, complexities, and requirements/regulations, such a co-optimization planning problem is very challenging in both modeling and computation aspects. To address this critical challenge, this project will build analytical decision support models and design efficient solution methods to aid the energy industry in formulating and computing practical-scale co-optimization problems. The effectiveness and benefit of co-optimization planning will be demonstrated and evaluated through an actual microgrid project and industrial collaborations. In addition to including doctoral students in research and creating educational materials for the next generation energy system planners and operations researchers, concrete projects will be designed to involve underrepresented students on utilizing analytical/computational tools to address real energy problems.
Previous research on co-optimization planning of electricity and gas systems is limited, while also often neglecting critical reliability considerations, key random/uncertain factors, or the long-term multi-stage nature of planning problems. This research project will address these shortcomings by (1) investigating key interactions between electricity and gas systems with different spatial-temporal granularities as well as multiple planning and operation levels; (2) building a set of co-optimization planning models that simultaneously consider the multi-stage planning horizon, the hourly chronological operation details with critical random/uncertain factors, and the requirements of long-term reliability and short-term flexibility; (3) designing and implementing high-performance computational methods and tools through advanced decomposition strategies, strong approximation approaches, and effective hybrid methods; and (4) validating, demonstrating, and promoting the developed models and computational tools through an on-going microgrid project and established industry connections.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: BIOMATERIALS PROGRAM | Award Amount: 99.73K | Year: 2017
The full range of antibiotic-resistant microbes found in hospitals and the broader environment represent a clear and present danger to the general public, first responders, and military personnel. Effective response to this public health challenge necessitates adoption of an outside-the-box strategy for the de novo design of novel classes of microbicides. The goal of this NSF Career award is to develop a novel self-assembling antimicrobial nanofiber (SAAN) platform for safer and more effective therapeutic administration of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) compared to conventional treatment options. Systematic engineering of SAANs has minimized host cell cytotoxicity, improved their protease-resistance and their antimicrobial activity against broad-spectrum bacteria. The success of the proposed work will open new avenues for AMP-based antimicrobial therapy to treat a variety of infectious diseases found in both civilian hospitals and military facilities. The fundamental knowledge developed from the proposed research activities will provide a powerful new glossary of fundamental design principles for the synthesis and deployment of AMPs. It will have a transformative impact on the multi-billion-dollar research focused on conventional antibiotics and AMPs by re-engineering and re-formatting thousands of available AMPs in the peptide databank to form SAANs, thereby greatly boosting their therapeutic potential. The multidisciplinary research involving chemistry, microbiology, engineering, nanoscience, and pharmaceutical sciences provides ample opportunities to train and educate students at all levels. The fundamental biomaterials design, supramolecular chemistry and antimicrobial delivery principle will be integrated into various research and educational activities, particularly through summer research opportunities provided to high school students to promote their scientific research interests and enhance their career awareness. Educational partnership with local high school will be established to provide summer research internship to high school teachers to incorporate the fundamental knowledge of the proposed research into various high school curriculum.
The discovery of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has brought tremendous opportunities to overcome the prevalence of bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics due to their direct action against bacterial membrane. However, despite AMPs exceptional bactericidal activity in vitro, their susceptibility to proteases, limited circulation half-lives and severe host cell toxicity represent critical hurdles to their widespread use. This CAREER award supported by the Biomaterials program in the Division of Materials Research to Clarkson University focuses on a new paradigm of Self-Assembled Antimicrobial Nanofibers (SAANs) as a vehicle-free AMP delivery system to alleviate the drawback associated with conventional AMPs. In SAANs, AMPs serve as both therapeutics and key structural components to program and direct the assembly through highly specific intermolecular interactions. Through the proposed work, we will build a toolbox of cationic de novo designed peptides with expanded chemical functionality by which to construct various SAANs families, and explore the effect of new functional groups on the molecular and supramolecular packing of SAANs, antimicrobial activity and hemocompatibility. Fundamental knowledge about the structure-activity relationship is essential for the design of new antimicrobial nanomaterials with precise control over molecular structure, nanostructure, stimuli-responsive antimicrobial activity and exquisite biocompatibility. The impact of this proposal lies in that SAANs could potentially be established as a new and unique AMP delivery platform with well-defined filamentous structure and the ease of incorporating multi-therapeutics for combinatorial antimicrobial and chemotherapy to treat various human diseases. The proposed project will integrate supramolecular chemistry, biomaterials design and antimicrobial delivery principles and techniques with various education and outreach activities for students at all levels.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROJECTS - CISE | Award Amount: 600.00K | Year: 2017
The United States is experiencing an increasing frequency of catastrophic weather events that inflict serious social and economic impacts. A critical issue associated with such catastrophes is the availability of electricity for the recovery efforts. Community resilience microgrids can connect critical loads in the community and share the distributed energy resources of multiple providers to enhance the availability of electricity supply during disruptions. However, community resilience microgrids are complex networked systems, and their operation can be often interrupted or halted due to the cascaded growth of failures in interconnected electrical and communications components or the unwillingness or inability of individual microgrid partners to respond. In order to enable the full functionality of community resilience microgrids, this project investigates an integrated reconfigurable control and self-organizing communication framework for enhancing operations in both grid-connected and islanded modes. The effectiveness and benefit of the proposed framework will be demonstrated and evaluated through the hardware-in-the-loop simulation and an actual community microgrid project, which will ultimately provide a model for the successful deployment of community resilience microgrids in the U.S. and beyond. In addition to including doctoral students in research and creating educational materials for the next generation operators and researchers of electrical and communications systems, projects will involve underrepresented students in evaluating social, economic, and resilience benefits of integrated control and communication approaches.
Coordinated dynamic control strategies for distributed energy resources and loads of multiple owners across different timescales, together with their distinct communication requirements, are the key to the resilient and economic operation of community microgrids in both grid-connected and islanded modes. This research will address these challenges by (1) exploring a hierarchically reconfigurable centralized/distributed control strategy to optimally manage power flows of distribution lines, dispatches of distributed energy resources and flexible loads, and the voltage and frequency of the microgrid across multiple timescales; (2) investigating a self-organizing infrastructure with network topology adjustment and multi-scale data aggregation for flexible, fast, and reliable communication; (3) developing an integrated reconfigurable control and self-organizing communication framework to study the interdependency and interaction between control strategies and communication requirements; and (4) validating, demonstrating, and promoting the developed framework through the hardware-in-the-loop simulation and an ongoing community microgrid project.
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2017
The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) Phase I project will lie in the improved ability to accurately monitor indoor and outdoor airborne particles using the proposed low-cost, broad size-range, aerosol sensor to be developed in this research project. Inhalation of aerosol particles can result in adverse human health effects, with the critical parameter from a health effect perspective being the concentration of particles smaller than 2.5µm, i.e. PM2.5. Measurements of PM2.5 are critical to understand the extent of particulate exposure that populations experience in different environments. This project?s proposed approach is to measure particle concentrations by charging them and sensing their abundance using sensitive low-current circuits. This approach allows for measurements over a broad size range and at low-cost. Most of the currently available aerosol sensors are only sensitive to particles larger than ~ 500 nm, and hence are unreliable for ambient measurements. The proposed sensor will, thus, likely generate a significant interest in the aerosol research community and the ambient air quality monitoring industry. The technical objectives in this Phase I research project are to demonstrate the feasibility of accurate aerosol concentration measurements over a size range of 10 nm to 2.5 µm using an electrical-sensing technique. The intellectual merit of the proposed project lies in the novel combination of electrical-mobility aerosol classification, printed electrodes, low-current sensing electronics, and advanced inversion algorithms to result in a low-cost real-time, wide size-range, aerosol sensor. With printed electrodes, the signal response from the sensor can be tailored to be proportional to total particle volume concentration, and, thus, to PM2.5. The research objectives are to demonstrate the accuracy of volume concentration measurements made with our sensor for a range of particle types and size distributions. The successful completion of this project should result in a prototype sensor that can accurately measure total aerosol concentrations in different ambient conditions. This would be a first critical step towards the final development of a low-cost sensor for large-scale air quality measurements.