Ogbomo H.,University of Calgary |
Ogbomo H.,Southern Research Institute |
Ogbomo H.,Clark ith Brain Tumor Center |
Cinatl J.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
And 5 more authors.
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2011
Malignant gliomas (MGs) are deadly brain tumors with a median survival after resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy of only 12 months. The natural immunosuppressive state of MG patients and the locally restricted growth of MGs render this neoplasm an excellent target for immunotherapy. Consequently, several failed attempts were made to treat MGs with immune cells. Recent preclinical experimental studies, however, demonstrate that natural killer (NK) cells can kill MGs and therefore hold promise in immunotherapy of MGs. This review describes the experimental and clinical evidence that support the potential of NK cells in therapy of MGs as well as the limitations to NK therapy. Finally, we propose strategies that could circumvent mitigating factors and enhance NK cell therapy for MG patients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Thiessen B.,BC Cancer Agency |
Stewart C.,St Judes Childrens Research Hospital |
Tsao M.,Princess Margaret Hospital |
Kamel-Reid S.,Princess Margaret Hospital |
And 7 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2010
Purpose: We undertook a phase I/II study of the EGFR/erbB2 inhibitor lapatinib in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) to determine response rate, pharmacokinetics (PK) and recommended dose in patients taking enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs (EIAEDs) and to explore relationships of molecular genetics to outcome. Methods: Recurrent GBM patients taking EIAEDs were enrolled on the phase I portion (starting dose of lapatinib 1,000 mg po bid). In the absence of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), escalation continued in cohorts of three patients. Patients not on EIAEDs enrolled in the phase II arm (lapatinib 750 mg bid po). Immunohistochemical and quantitative RT PCR studies were performed on tumor to determine PTEN and EGFRvIII status, respectively. Lapatinib PK was analyzed using HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Phase II: Of 17 patients, 4 had stable disease and 13 progressed. Accrual ceased because of no responses. Phase I: Four patients received 1,000 mg bid and three, 1,500 mg bid. No DLT occurred, but escalation stopped because of lack of phase II efficacy. Lapatinib apparent oral clearance in patients taking EIAEDs was 106.9 L h-1 m-2 in comparison to 12.1 L h-1 m-2 in those not on EIAEDs. In 16 phase II patients, PTEN loss was seen in 6 and EGFRvIII expression in 4. No correlation was seen with outcome and molecular results. Conclusions: Lapatinib apparent oral clearance increased by approximately tenfold when given with EIAEDs. In this small sample, EGFRvIII expression and PTEN loss did not predict a favorable subtype. Overall, lapatinib did not show significant activity in GBM patients. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Roldan G.,Clark ith Brain Tumor Center |
Roldan G.,University of Calgary |
Chan J.,Clark ith Brain Tumor Center |
Chan J.,University of Calgary |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2011
In this population-based study, we determined the frequency and clinical characteristics of leptomeningeal disease (LMD) developing in the context of oligodendroglial tumors (oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas). LMD occurred in only 3.9% (8/204) of oligodendroglial tumors and in patients with more recurrences [mean 2.88 vs. 1.27 in LMD and non-LMD, respectively (p = 0.001)]. In contrast to LMD from systemic solid tumors, the median survival following the diagnosis of LMD in oligodendroglial tumors was surprisingly long at 22 months (95% CI 11-33 months). Treatment with oral chemotherapy seemed as effective as more aggressive treatments (e.g. repeat RT or intrathecal chemotherapy) in these patients. © 2011 The Author(s).