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Clarion, PA, United States

Clarion University of Pennsylvania is a public university located in Clarion, Pennsylvania. It is one of fourteen universities who are part of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education . The school was founded in 1867 and offers associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees and post master's certificates. Wikipedia.

Awan S.N.,Bloomsburg University | Awan J.A.,Clarion University of Pennsylvania
Journal of Voice | Year: 2013

Objectives/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to reevaluate the possible effect of gender on measures of electroglottographic contact quotient (CQ). In addition to criterion threshold methods frequently used for the computation of CQ's via electroglottography (EGG), derivative based methods of computing the EGG CQ that have not been previously evaluated in regard to their effectiveness in discriminating between male versus female EGG waveforms were also examined. Study Design: Causal, mixed design. Methods: EGG waveforms were recorded during sustained vowel production from normal voice men and women (total N = 50). Measures of EGG CQ were calculated using eight criterion thresholds (25-60% in 5% increments). In addition, CQs were computed using the EGG derivative (DEGG) as well as via two hybrid methods that combine thresholds with measures from the DEGG. Results: Only CQs calculated via the DEGG showed a statistically significant difference in the direction anticipated via previous research (ie, men > women). In addition, the DEGG was the only method to show statistically significant differences in CQ useful in discriminating between "knee"-shaped opening phases observed in 76% of the men versus no "knee" opening phases observed in 64% of the women. Conclusions: The DEGG may provide advantages over other methods of EGG CQ analysis that are useful in revealing possible gender differences in vocal physiology. Further studies that examine the relationship between EGG, DEGG, and visualization of vocal fold dynamics via high-speed video may provide further insight into the possible differences between adult male versus female contacting and decontacting points during comfortable pitch and loudness phonation. © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Source

Mason-Baughman M.B.,Clarion University of Pennsylvania | Wallace S.E.,Duquesne University
Aphasiology | Year: 2013

Background: Semantic knowledge refers to the information that a person knows about the world. Semantic representations comprise semantic features that may be categorised based on distinctiveness and importance. The expressive and receptive language problems experienced by people with aphasia may relate to deficits in their semantic feature knowledge. Thus understanding impairments in semantic knowledge in persons with aphasia is key to the rehabilitation process.Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in distinctive feature knowledge across importance levels in people with aphasia grouped according to their ability to distinguish target words from semantically related foils. The relationship of feature knowledge and comprehension and naming abilities was also examined. The primary hypothesis was that participants who had difficulty choosing among semantically related foils would have significantly more difficulty with identification of distinctive features than common features as compared to participants who were able to choose among semantically related foils. Methods & Procedures: A total of 14 adults with aphasia participated in the study. Participants distinguished target words from semantically unrelated and related foils, and sorted common and distinctive semantic features of high and low importance. Participants also completed standardised testing to determine comprehension and naming abilities. Outcomes & Results: A three-way ANOVA was used to investigate the main effects and interactions between groups based on ability to distinguish targets from semantically related foils, distinctiveness of features, and importance of features. Results of the ANOVA showed significant main effects for feature importance, distinctiveness of features, and group. Between-group differences for high- and low-importance common and distinctive feature knowledge were investigated using a series of t-tests. In addition, results showed that feature knowledge correlated with comprehension and naming scores. Findings support that persons with aphasia demonstrate difficulty with identification of low-importance and distinctive features which contributes significantly to the comprehensiveness of their semantic representations as well as impacts their ability to distinguish among semantically related foils. Conclusions: Participants with aphasia who have difficulty identifying target words among semantically related foils have greater deficits with low-importance distinctive feature knowledge than those who are able to choose among semantically related foils. In addition, participants with relatively intact semantic representations in regard to importance and distinctiveness ratings appear to have better comprehension and naming abilities as evidenced by the significant relationships between feature identification measures and tests of naming and comprehension abilities. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Welsh B.Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Montgomery S.,Clarion University of Pennsylvania
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific | Year: 2013

We present medium spectral resolution (R ~ 60; 000) observations of the CaII K-line (3,933 Å) absorption profiles observed toward 21 nearby A-type stars thought to possess circumstellar gas debris disks. The stars were repeatedly observed over two observing runs on the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas in 2011 May and 2012 November. Nightly changes in the absorption strength of the CaII K-line near the stellar radial velocity were observed in four of the stars (HD 21620, HD 110411, HD 145964 and HD 183324). This type of absorption variability indicates the presence of a circumstellar gas disk around these stars. We also have detected weak absorption features that sporadically appear with velocities in the range ±100 km s-1 of the main circumstellar K-line in the spectra of HD 21620, HD 42111, HD 110411 and HD 145964. Due to the known presence of both gas and dust disks surrounding these four stars, these transient absorption features are most probably associated with the presence of Falling Evaporated Bodies (FEBs, or exocomets) that are thought to liberate gas on their grazing trajectory toward and around the central star. This now brings the total number of A-type stars in which the evaporation of CaII gas from protoplanetary bodies (i.e., exocomets) has been observed to vary on a nightly basis to 10 systems. A statistical analysis of the 10 A-stars showing FEB-activity near the CaII K-line compared to 21 A-type stars that exhibit no measurable variability reveals that FEB-activity occurs in significantly younger stellar systems that also exhibit chemical peculiarities. The presence of FEB-activity does not appear to be associated with a strong mid-IR excess. This is probably linked to the disk inclination angle, since unless the viewing angle is favorable the detection of time-variable absorption may be unlikely. Additionally, if the systems are more evolved then the evaporation of gas due to FEB activity could have ceased, whereas the circumstellar dust disk may still remain. © 2013. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved. Source

Brigida M.,Clarion University of Pennsylvania
Energy Economics | Year: 2014

In this analysis we more accurately capture the cointegrating relationship between natural gas and crude oil prices by endogenously incorporating shifts in the cointegrating vector into the estimation of the cointegrating equation. Specifically, we allow the cointegrating equation to switch between m states, according to a first-order Markov process. First, we find evidence that regime-switching exists in the relative pricing relationship, and that two is the optimal number of states. Once we control for shifts in the cointegrating vector, we find that natural gas and crude oil prices are cointegrated, and an error correction model (ECM) of their long-term equilibrium relationship is properly specified. This finding broadens the ECM model of their relationship to longer and more varied sample periods. Also, in a direct comparison of the two and one state cointegrating equations, we found evidence of the potential superiority of the two-state equation, in that it may be robust to shifts in the cointegrating vector which are missed by standard tests for a unit root. Further, our analysis finds evidence that natural gas and crude oil prices did not permanently 'decouple' in the early 2000s, but rather experienced a temporary shift in regimes. We find that forecasts of the relative pricing of natural gas and crude oil should be conditioned on state probability. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Clarion University of Pennsylvania | Date: 2014-03-13

A dental implant provided herein includes a body including titanium or titanium alloy and a diamond-like coating on the body. The diamond-like coating has a surface kurtosis R

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