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Saint Cloud, PA, United States

Simpson A.,Clarion University | Turner I.,Auburn University | Brantley E.,Auburn University | Helms B.,Auburn University
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

Streams in the southeastern Piedmont region display varying degrees of bank erosion, which in turn can influence multiple physical and biological processes. In efforts to assess and predict bank erosion, the multi-metric tool Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) is often calculated. As designed, the BEHI takes into consideration many physical phenomena and scores stream banks categorically from very low to extreme bank erosion hazard; however the power of this index to directly predict in-stream biological conditions is unknown. The predictive ability of BEHI was evaluated on near-bank aquatic biota and organic matter (OM) retention in an AL Piedmont stream with a range of bank conditions. Fifteen banks were characterized using the BEHI and subsequently, macroinvertebrates, crayfishes, fishes and organic matter associated with each bank were quantified. Results suggest increased macroinvertebrate richness and OM retention with low BEHI score. Multivariate analyses suggest functional similarity in macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with low BEHI banks and greater variation in assemblages as BEHI increased. Crayfish were more abundant at banks with high BEHI, a pattern attributed to increases in a generalist species in more-degraded habitats. Fish response showed no discernible pattern in relationship to BEHI score. These results suggest that BEHI may have applications as an informative ecological evaluation tool integrating physical and biological conditions in streams. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Greene A.M.,Clarion University
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

Introduction: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 mandates that all students perform at a level of proficient on state assessments. This includes students with learning and intellectual disabilities who are inherently performing below grade level. Given that schools are held accountable for meeting these goals and some states are not allowing students to graduate if they do not pass the assessments, this is a large concern for students, parents, teachers, and administration. Method: Forty-five students with a disability in writing or an intellectual disability participated in this quasi-experimental, singlegroup, pretest-posttest design that evaluated the effectiveness of the Fading Prompts through Graphic Organizers method for students with learning and intellectual disabilities in written expression as measured according to the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment. Results: Data analyses were conducted through the use of four dichotomies for percent differences, which compared teacher administered pretests and posttests, pretests and the state administered PSSA, teacher administered posttests and the PSSA, and the participants' PSSA and the average state PSSA score. All forty-five students performed at a below basic level during baseline and a proficient level on the posttest. The learned skills generalized to the PSSA with forty-three students earning a passing score of proficient, while two students advanced to basic. Conclusion: Based on the outcomes of this study, it is highly recommended that this program be utilized at least for students with learning and intellectual disabilities until further research can be done. © 2015 by Amy Marie Greene. Source


Li C.,Clarion University | Li D.,Youngstown State University | Solomon V.,Youngstown State University | Bauer M.,Clarion University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids | Year: 2013

Metastable icosahedral quasicrystalline nanoparticles precipitate in the initial crystallization processes of some selected zirconium and hafnium based metallic glasses. All such particles reported so far are embedded in residual glassy matrix. It is predicted that, if these are separated as free standing particles, they can be applied in a variety of fields. Breaking the suitably annealed metallic glasses to small pieces by mechanical approaches is considered to be the first step toward this goal. The result of such an attempt is reported here. Several previously reported metallic glasses such as Zr 70Cu27.5Rh2.5 and Hf69.5Al 7.5Ni11Cu12 have been abraded by using regular sandpapers and diamond papers, scraped with diamond scratchers, and sliced by using microtome. Thus obtained small pieces have been examined by Scanning Electron Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. It has been revealed that the mechanical breaking processes cause an undesired phase transformation of the quasicrystalline nanoparticles to the crystalline phases. The reason for this undesired phase transformation was analyzed and the appropriate procedures to avoid this negative effect for future work were suggested. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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