Lahm T.,Indiana University |
Spartz H.N.,Indiana University |
Spartz H.N.,Clarian Pathology Laboratory |
Hawley D.A.,Indiana University |
And 9 more authors.
Respiratory Medicine CME | Year: 2010
Recent reports describe an increase in the incidence of fatal adenovirus infections. Several severe cases have been linked to adenovirus serotype 21. The exact etiology for this unexpectedly high mortality remains unknown. We report the case of a patient with severe adenovirus serotype 21 pneumonia resulting in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with acute respiratory distress syndrome and rapidly progressive multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). HLH describes a cytokine storm due to uncontrolled accumulation of activated T-lymphocytes and activated histiocytes. This results in organ infiltration with these cells, and subsequent hemophagocytosis of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. In its most severe form, HLH leads to a sepsis-like picture and MODS. The association between adenovirus 21 and HLH may at least in part explain the recently observed increase in incidence of fatal adenoviral infections. We suggest that HLH should be considered in cases of severe adenoviral infection. If HLH is present, aggressive treatment is warranted. © 2009.
Bhagavathi S.,Indiana University |
Czader M.,Indiana University |
Czader M.,Clarian Pathology Laboratory
Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of 19- 24- nucleotide noncoding RNAs that regulate messenger RNA function at the posttranscriptional and translational level. Recent literature demonstrates a significant role of miRNAs in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Specific miRNAs have been shown to regulate each step of hematopoiesis starting at the level of multipotent progenitors through terminal stages of myeloid and lymphoid differentiation. Similarly, individual miRNAs and miRNA signatures have been associated with specific hematologic malignancies. There is accumulating evidence that miRNAs can be used for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes. This review highlights the current status of knowledge on miRNA in normal and malignant hemato- poiesis.
Madan R.,Harvard University |
Chen J.-H.,Clarian Pathology Laboratory |
Trotman-Dickenson B.,Brigham and Women's Hospital |
Jacobson F.,Brigham and Women's Hospital |
Hunsaker A.,Brigham and Women's Hospital
European Journal of Radiology | Year: 2012
Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare benign lymphoid disorder with variable clinical course. The two principal histologic subtypes of CD are hyaline-vascular and plasma cell variants and the major clinicoradiological entities are unicentric and multicentric CD. Management of CD is tailored to clinicoradiologic subtype. In this review, we describe the CT, MR and PET/CT findings in Castleman's disease which can help suggest a diagnosis of CD as well as emphasize role of imaging in management of patients with CD. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Resetkova E.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center |
Reis-Filho J.S.,Institute of Cancer Research |
Jain R.K.,Clarian Pathology Laboratory |
Mehta R.,Clarian Pathology Laboratory |
And 3 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010
The concept of cancer cells being hierarchically organized and arising from their own progenitor stem cells will have important implications on cancer therapy. If this hypothesis were to be true then the paucity of estrogen receptors in stem cells as well as their inherent drug resistance mechanisms pose a challenge to current targeted therapies. In this study, we sought to examine the prognostic relevance of ALDH1, a putative cancer stem cell marker, by immunohistochemistry. The four cohorts analyzed included an adjuvantly treated series of 245 invasive cancers, a neoadjuvantly treated series of 34 cases, and two series of 58 and 40 triple negative cases, respectively. Both tumor cell and stromal expression for ALDH1 was evaluated, where possible. Tumor cell ALDH1 expression significantly correlated only with basal-like and HER2 tumor types in the adjuvant series and tumor grade in the neoadjuvant cohort. No significant enrichment for ALDH1 positive cells was observed in the postneoadjuvant therapy specimens compared to pretreatment samples. On the other hand, high degree of stromal expression was significantly associated with best disease-free survival as well as a trend for overall survival. The association of stromal expression was confirmed in an independent cohort of triple negative cases. The novel finding is that tumor microenvironment may play a significant role in determining the prognostic impact of stem/progenitor cells in human breast tumors. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Denys G.A.,Clarian Pathology Laboratory |
Grover P.,Eurofins |
O'Hanley P.,Exoxemis Inc. |
Stephens Jr. J.T.,Exoxemis Inc.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011
Objectives: E-101 Solution (E-101) is a novel myeloperoxidase-mediated antimicrobial. It is composed of porcine myeloperoxidase (pMPO), glucose oxidase, glucose as the substrate and specific amino acids in an aqueous vehicle. E-101 is being developed for topical application directly into surgical wounds to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs). The in vitro activity of E-101 was investigated. Methods: MIC, MBC, time-kill and antimicrobial combination experiments were performed according to CLSI guidelines with modifications. Resistance selection studies were performed using a serial passage method. Results: E-101 showed MIC90 values of 0.03, 0.5 and 0.5 mg pMPO/L for staphylococci (n=140), streptococci (n=95) and enterococci (n=55), respectively. MIC90 values ranged between 0.03-0.5 and ≤0.004-0.12 mg pMPO/L for Enterobacteriaceae (n=148) and Gram-negative non-Enterobacteriaceae (n=92) strains, respectively. There was no antimicrobial tolerance to E-101 for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae or Streptococcus pyogenes. Time-kill studies demonstrated a rapid (<30 min) bactericidal effect against S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. There was no evidence of stable resistance to E-101 among staphylococci, enterococci, E. coli or P. aeruginosa strains and no evidence of E-101 interaction with antibiotics commonly used in clinical medicine. Conclusions: E-101 shows potent and broad-spectrum in vitro activity against bacteria that are the causative pathogens of SSIs, thereby providing the impetus to test its clinical utility in the prevention of SSIs. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.