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Hesjedal T.,University of Waterloo | Hesjedal T.,Clarendon Laboratory
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

Few-layer graphene is obtained in atmospheric chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline copper in a roll-to-roll process. Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to confirm the few-layer nature of the graphene film, to map the inhomogeneities, and to study and optimize the growth process. This continuous growth process can be easily scaled up and enables the low-cost fabrication of graphene films for industrial applications. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. Source


Ingram W.,Clarendon Laboratory | Ingram W.,UK Met Office
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

The water vapour feedback probably makes the largest contribution to climate sensitivity, and the second-largest contribution to its uncertainty, in the sense of disagreement between General Circulation Models (GCMs, the most physically detailed models of climate we have). Yet there has been no quantification of it which allows these differences to be attributed physically with the aim of constraining the true value. This paper develops a new breakdown of the non-cloud LW (longwave) response to climate change, which avoids the problems of the conventional breakdown, and applies it to a set of 4 GCMs. The basic physical differences are that temperature is used as the vertical coordinate, and relative humidity as the humidity variable. In this framework the different GCMs' feedbacks look more alike, consistent with our understanding that their water vapour responses are physically very similar. Also, in the global mean all the feedback components have the same sign, allowing us to conveniently attribute the overall response fractionally (e. g. about 60% from the "partly-Simpsonian" component). The systematic cancellation between different feedback components in the conventional breakdown is lost, so now a difference in a feedback component actually contributes to a difference in climate sensitivity, and the differences between these GCMs in the non-cloud LW part of this can be traced to differences in formulation, mean climate and climate change response. Physical effects such as those due to variations in the formulation of LW radiative transfer become visible. Differences in the distribution of warming no longer dominate comparison of GCMs. The largest component depends locally only on the GCM's mean climate, so it can in principle be calculated for the real world and validated. However, components dependent on the climate change response probably account for most of the variation between GCMs. The effect of simply changing the humidity variable in the conventional breakdown is also examined. It gives some of this improvement-the loss of the cancellations that leave the conventional breakdown of no use to understand differences between GCMs' climate sensitivities-but not the link to mean climate. © 2012 Crown Copyright. Source


Steane A.M.,Clarendon Laboratory
American Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

It is widely believed that classical electromagnetism is either unphysical or inconsistent, owing to pathological behavior when self-force and radiation reaction are non-negligible. We argue that there is no inconsistency as long as it is recognized that certain types of charge distribution are simply impossible, such as, for example, a point particle with finite charge and finite inertia. This is owing to the fact that negative inertial mass is an unphysical concept in classical physics. It remains useful to obtain an equation of motion for small charged objects that describes their motion to good approximation without requiring knowledge of the charge distribution within the object. We give a simple method to achieve this, leading to a reduced-order form of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equation, essentially as proposed by Eliezer, Landau, and Lifshitz and derived by Ford and O'Connell. © 2015 American Association of Physics Teachers. Source


Steane A.M.,Clarendon Laboratory
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We present two results in the treatment of self-force of accelerating bodies. If the total force on an extended rigid object is calculated from the change of momentum summed over planes of simultaneity of successive rest frames, then we show that an ideal fluid, moving rigidly, exerts a net force on its boundary that is independent of both pressure and orientation. Under this same definition of total force, we find the electromagnetic self-force for a spherical charged shell of proper radius R accelerating with constant proper acceleration g is (2e2g/R)[1/12-n=0(gR)2n((2n-3)(2n-1)(2n+1)2)-1]. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source


Steane A.M.,Clarendon Laboratory
American Journal of Physics | Year: 2015

We consider radiation reaction and energy conservation in classical electromagnetism. We first treat the well-known problem of energy accounting during radiation from a uniformly accelerating particle. This gives rise to the following paradox: when the self-force vanishes, the system providing the applied force does only enough work to give the particle its kinetic energy-so where does the energy that is eventually radiated away come from? We answer this question using a modern treatment of radiation reaction and self-force, as it appears in the expression due to Eliezer and Ford and O'Connell. We clarify the influence of the Schott force, and we find that the radiated power is 2q2a0 · f0/(3mc3), which differs from Larmor's formula. Finally, we present a simple and highly visual argument that enables one to track the radiated energy without the need to appeal to the far field in the distant future (the "wave zone"). © 2015 American Association of Physics Teachers. Source

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