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Claremont, CA, United States

Bisson L.F.,University of California at Davis | Karpel J.E.,Claremont Colleges
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The availability of the sequence of the Saccharomyces genome in combination with the development of chemical analytical technologies with dynamic ranges sensitive enough to detect volatile aromatic compounds has generated a renewed interest in defining the role of yeast in the generation of wine aroma and flavor. Genetic differences among wine strains are well documented and aroma profiles also appear to vary, implying that specific allelic alterations may exist and impact the production of compounds associated with flavor. Partial or complete sequencing data on several wine strains are available and reveal underlying genetic differences across strains in key genes implicated in flavor formation. This review discusses the current understanding of the roles of Saccharomyces in wine flavor with an emphasis on positive contributions to flavor and highlights the discoveries of the underlying enzymatic and metabolic mechanisms responsible for the yeast contribution to wine quality. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Mauro A.A.,Claremont Colleges | Jayne C.B.,University of Cincinnati
Zoology | Year: 2016

Arboreal animals often encounter branches with variable diameters that are highly correlated with stiffness, but how surface compliance affects the perch choice of animals is poorly understood. We used artificial branches to test the effects of different diameters and compliance on the choice between two destinations for twenty brown tree snakes as they bridged gaps. When both destinations were rigid, the diameters of the surfaces did not affect perch choice. However, with increased experience snakes developed a preference for a rigid, large-diameter perch compared to a compliant, small-diameter perch that collapsed under loads that were a small fraction of the weight of the snake. In hundreds of trials, with only one exception, the snakes proceeded to crawl entirely onto all rigid perches after first touching them, whereas the snakes commonly withdrew from the compliant perch even after touching it so lightly that it did not collapse. Hence, both tactile and visual cues appear to influence how these animals select a destination while crossing a gap. The preference for the rigid, large-diameter perch compared to the compliant, small-diameter perch developed mainly from short-term learning during three successive trials per testing session per individual. Furthermore, a preference for large diameters did not persist in the final treatment which used a rigid, large-diameter perch and a rigid, small-diameter perch. Hence, brown tree snakes appeared to be able to form short-term associations between the perch appearance and stiffness, the latter of which may have been determined via tactile sensory input. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Insperger T.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Milton J.,Claremont Colleges | Stepan G.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2015

An important question for human balance control concerns how the differential equations for the neural control of balance should be formulated. In this paper, we consider a discrete-time and a continuous-time delayed proportional-derivative-acceleration controller and establish the transition between them by means of the semi-discretization. We show that the critical delay, which limits stabilizability of the system, is about the same for the continuous-time systems and its semi-discrete counterparts. © 2015, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Olivier G.K.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Cho A.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Cho A.,The New School | Sanii B.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

The ability of antibodies to bind a wide variety of analytes with high specificity and high affinity make them ideal candidates as molecular recognition elements for chemical and biological sensors. However, their widespread use in sensing devices has been hampered by their poor stability and high production cost. Here we report the design and synthesis of a new class of antibody-mimetic materials based on functionalized peptoid nanosheets. A high density of conformationally constrained peptide and peptoid loops are displayed on the surface of free-floating nanosheets to generate an extended, multivalent two-dimensional material that is chemically and biologically stable. The nanosheet serves as a robust, high-surface area scaffold upon which to display a wide variety of functional loop sequences. The functionalized nanosheets were characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectivity measurements, and were shown to serve as substrates for enzymes (protease and casein kinase II), as well as templates for the growth of defined inorganic materials (gold metal). © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Helmuth B.,University of South Carolina | Broitman B.R.,Catolica del Norte University | Yamane L.,University of South Carolina | Gilman S.E.,Claremont Colleges | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2010

Predicting when, where and with what magnitude climate change is likely to affect the fitness, abundance and distribution of organisms and the functioning of ecosystems has emerged as a high priority for scientists and resource managers. However, even in cases where we have detailed knowledge of current species' range boundaries, we often do not understand what, if any, aspects of weather and climate act to set these limits. This shortcoming significantly curtails our capacity to predict potential future range shifts in response to climate change, especially since the factors that set range boundaries under those novel conditions may be different from those that set limits today. We quantitatively examine a nine-year time series of temperature records relevant to the body temperatures of intertidal mussels as measured using biomimetic sensors. Specifically, we explore how a 'climatology' of body temperatures, as opposed to long-term records of habitat-level parameters such as air and water temperatures, can be used to extrapolate meaningful spatial and temporal patterns of physiological stress. Using different metrics that correspond to various aspects of physiological stress (seasonal means, cumulative temperature and the return time of extremes) we show that these potential environmental stressors do not always occur in synchrony with one another. Our analysis also shows that patterns of animal temperature are not well correlated with simple, commonly used metrics such as air temperature. Detailed physiological studies can provide guidance to predicting the effects of global climate change on natural ecosystems but only if we concomitantly record, archive and model environmental signals at appropriate scales. © 2010, Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

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