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Thines B.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Thines B.C.,ck Science Center | Youn Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Duarte M.I.,University of California at Berkeley | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Warm temperature promotes flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana and this response involves multiple signalling pathways. To understand the temporal dynamics of temperature perception, tests were carried out to determine if there was a daily window of enhanced sensitivity to warm temperature (28 C). Warm temperature applied during daytime, night-time, or continuously elicited earlier flowering, but the effects of each treatment were unequal. Plants exposed to warm night (WN) conditions flowered nearly as early as those in constant warm (CW) conditions, while treatment with warm days (WD) caused later flowering than either WN or CW. Flowering in each condition relied to varying degrees on the activity of CO, FT, PIF4, and PIF5, as well as the action of unknown genes. The combination of signalling pathways involved in flowering depended on the time of the temperature cue. WN treatments caused a significant advance in the rhythmic expression waveform of CO, which correlated with pronounced up-regulation of FT expression, while WD caused limited changes in CO expression and no stimulation of FT expression. WN- and WD-induced flowering was partially CO independent and, unexpectedly, dependent on PIF4 and PIF5. pif4-2, pif5-3, and pif4-2 pif5-3 mutants had delayed flowering under all three warm conditions. The double mutant was also late flowering in control conditions. In addition, WN conditions alone imposed selective changes to PIF4 and PIF5 expression. Thus, the PIF4 and PIF5 transcription factors promote flowering by at least two means: inducing FT expression in WN and acting outside of FT by an unknown mechanism in WD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

Lundberg J.,Carleton University | McFarlane D.A.,ck Science Center
Quaternary Research | Year: 2012

A distinctive white sediment in the caves of Mulu, Sarawak, Borneo is a well-preserved tephra, representing a fluvially transported surface air-fall deposit, re-deposited inside the caves. We show that the tephra is not the Younger Toba Tephra, formerly considered as most likely. The shards are rod-shaped with elongate tubular vesicles; the largest grains ~170μm in length; of rhyolitic composition; and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of 0.70426±0.00001. U-Th dating of associated calcites suggest that the tephra was deposited before 125±4ka, and probably before 156±2ka. Grain size and distance from closest potential source suggests an eruption of VEI 7. Prevailing winds, grain size, thickness of deposit, location of potential sources, and Sr isotopic ratio limit the source to the Philippines. Comparisons with the literature give the best match geochemically with layer 1822 from Ku et al. (2009a), dated by ocean core stratigraphy to 189ka. This tephra represents a rare terrestrial repository indicating a very substantial Plinian/Ultra-Plinian eruption that covered the Mulu region of Borneo with ash, a region that rarely receives tephra from even the largest known eruptions in the vicinity. It likely will be a valuable chronostratigraphic marker for sedimentary, palaeontological and archaeological studies. © 2012 University of Washington.

Lundberg J.,Carleton University | McFarlane D.A.,ck Science Center
Geomorphology | Year: 2012

The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO 2, H 2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~3.0mm/ka (1m/~300ka) and ~4.6mm/ka (1m/~200ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~34mm/ka (or 1m/~30ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~80cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2Ma. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Milton J.G.,ck Science Center
European Physical Journal: Special Topics | Year: 2012

The extent to which the occurrence of falls, the dominant feature of human attempts to balance a stick at their fingertip, can be predicted is examined in the context of the "Dragon-King" hypothesis. For skilled stick balancers, fluctuations in the controlled variable, namely the vertical displacement angle θ, exhibit power law behaviors. When stick balancing is made less stable by either decreasing the length of the stick or by requiring the subject to balance the stick on the surface of a table tennis racket, systematic departures from the power law behaviors are observed in the range of large θ. This observation raises the possibility that the presence of departures from the power law in the large length scale region, possibly Dragon-Kings, may identify situations in which the occurrence of a fall is more imminent. However, whether or not Dragon-Kings are observed, there is a Weibull-type survival function for stick falling. The possibility that increased risk of falling can, at least to some extent, be predicted from fluctuations in the controlled variable before the event occurs has important implications for the development of preventative strategies for the management of phenomena ranging from earthquakes to epileptic seizures to falls in the elderly. © 2012 EDP Sciences and Springer.

Insperger T.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Milton J.,ck Science Center
Biological Cybernetics | Year: 2014

The effects of sensory input uncertainty, ε, on the stability of time-delayed human motor control are investigated by calculating the minimum stick length, ℓcritℓ crit, that can be stabilized in the inverted position for a given time delay, τ. Five control strategies often discussed in the context of human motor control are examined: three time-invariant controllers [proportional-derivative, proportional-derivative- acceleration (PDA), model predictive (MP) controllers] and two time-varying controllers [act-and-wait (AAW) and intermittent predictive controllers]. The uncertainties of the sensory input are modeled as a multiplicative term in the system output. Estimates based on the variability of neural spike trains and neural population responses suggest that ≈ 7ε ≈ 7 -13 %. It is found that for this range of uncertainty, a tapped delay-line type of MP controller is the most robust controller. In particular, this controller can stabilize inverted sticks of the length balanced by expert stick balancers (0.25-0.5 m when τ ≈ 0.08τ ≈ 0.08 s). However, a PDA controller becomes more effective when ε > 15 %. A comparison between ℓcritℓ crit for human stick balancing at the fingertip and balancing on the rubberized surface of a table tennis racket suggest that friction likely plays a role in balance control. Measurements of ℓcrit, τ, and a variability of the fluctuations in the vertical displacement angle, an estimate of ε, may make it possible to study the changes in control strategy as motor skill develops. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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