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Kang H.-W.,Korea University | Kim J.-W.,CJ Research Institute of Biotechnology | Jung T.-S.,Gyeongsang National University | Woo G.-J.,Korea University
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Of the Salmonella enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium are responsible for most of the Salmonella outbreaks implicated in the consumption of contaminated foods in the Republic of Korea. Because of the widespread occurrence of antimicrobial- resistant Salmonella in foods and food processing environments, bacteriophages have recently surfaced as an alternative biocontrol tool. In this study, we isolated a virulent bacteriophage (wksl3) that could specifically infect S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and several additional serovars. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that phage wksl3 belongs to the family Siphoviridae. Complete genome sequence analysis and bioinformatic analysis revealed that the DNA of phage wksl3 is composed of 42,766 bp with 64 open reading frames. Since it does not encode any phage lysogeny factors, toxins, pathogen-related genes, or food-borne allergens, phage wksl3 may be considered a virulent phage with no side effects. Analysis of genetic similarities between phage wksl3 and four of its relatives (SS3e, vB_SenS-Ent1, SE2, and SETP3) allowed wksl3 to be categorized as a SETP3- like phage. A single-dose test of oral toxicity with BALB/c mice resulted in no abnormal clinical observations. Moreover, phage application to chicken skin at 8°C resulted in an about 2.5-log reduction in the number of Salmonella bacteria during the test period. The strong, stable lytic activity, the significant reduction of the number of S. Enteritidis bacteria after application to food, and the lack of clinical symptoms of this phage suggest that wksl3 may be a useful agent for the protection of foods against S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium contamination. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

Yeo J.-M.,CJ Research Institute of Biotechnology | Lee H.-J.,CJ Research Institute of Biotechnology | Kim J.-W.,CJ Research Institute of Biotechnology | Lee J.-B.,Konkuk University | And 3 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2014

We have previously reported that nasally administered Lactobacillus fermentum CJL-112 (CJL-112) efficiently improves resistance against lethal influenza infection in both mice and chicken. The aim of the present study was to understand the underlying mechanisms of the significant anti-influenza activity of this lactobacilli strain. In vitro, co-culturing of the chicken macrophage cell line HD-11 with CJL-112 significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production. In vivo, CJL-112 was nasally administered to BALB/c mice for 21 days prior to influenza A/NWS/33 (H1N1) virus (IFV) infection. Significant up-regulation of T-helper 1 (Th1) cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ) was observed, while the levels of T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) was either reduced or unchanged than that in control mice were. Furthermore, IgA and specific anti-influenza IgA levels increased significantly in the treated mice than those in untreated mice. Therefore, CJL-112 likely protects the mice against lethal IFV infection via stimulation of macrophages, activation of Th1 and augmentation of IgA production, when directly delivered into the respiratory tract. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lee H.-J.,Konkuk University | Lee H.-J.,CJ Research Institute of Biotechnology | Lee D.-H.,Konkuk University | Lee Y.-N.,Konkuk University | And 6 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

We compared the genetic and biologic characteristics of 35 influenza viruses of different epidemiological backgrounds in Korea, including H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that chicken adapted H9N2 viruses (A/chicken/Korea/96006/96 [CK/Kor/96006-like]) have acquired aquatic avian gene segments through reassortment, and these reassorted H9N2 viruses were more frequently detected from minor poultry species than from industrial poultry. Conversely, gene segments from CK/Kor/96006-like viruses were also detected in most of the viruses from domestic ducks. Interestingly, domestic ducks, rather than wild aquatic birds, harbored close relatives of all eight gene segments of H3N2 CIV, which preferred binding to avian receptors. Therefore, bidirectional virus transmission events are assumed to have occurred between land-based poultry and aquatic poultry, in particular within the non-industrial poultry system. These events have contributed to the generation of a novel reassortant, H3N2 CIV. To prevent generating other reassortants capable of interspecies transmission, gene movements in the non-industrial poultry systems should be clarified and managed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Youn H.-N.,Konkuk University | Lee Y.-N.,Konkuk University | Lee D.-H.,Konkuk University | Park J.-K.,Konkuk University | And 8 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine whether intranasal administration of Lactobacillus sp. could prevent horizontal transmission of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Three-week-old chickens received 500 μL of 1.5 × 109 cfu of Lactobacillus fermentum CJL-112 strain (CJL) intranasally for 7 d before and 14 d after a challenge. Challenged chickens, each inoculated with H9N2 AIV, were kept in either direct or indirect contact with naive chickens, and morbidity and viral shedding were monitored. We demonstrated that the intranasal administration of CJL significantly decreased the number of chickens with viral shedding from the gastrointestinal tract in the indirect contact chickens (P < 0.001) and also significantly reduced viral shedding from the respiratory tract in the challenged (P < 0.05) and the direct contact chickens (P < 0.001) than those in the control group. Hence, the use of this lactobacilli strain may constitute a novel and effectively plausible alternative to prevent and control H9N2 AIV infection in chickens. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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