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An Y.-E.,Kyung Hee University | Ahn S.-C.,Pusan National University | Yang D.-C.,Kyung Hee University | Park S.-J.,CJ Corporation | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The effects of puffing process on chemical conversion of ginsenosides, extraction yields and crude saponin contents in red ginseng were investigated. To reach a maximum extraction yield, puffed red ginseng took only 8 h, while non-puffed red ginseng required at least 20 h showing extraction yields of 45.7 g solid extract/100 g sample and 44.5 g solid extract/100 g sample, respectively. Extraction yield increased slightly with increasing puffing pressure. Puffed red ginseng showed higher crude saponin contents (201.0-219.0 mg/g extract) than non-puffed one (161.7-189.0 mg/g extract). As the puffing pressure increased, minor ginsenosides (Rg3, F2, Rk1 and Rg5) increased but the contents of major ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) decreased. These results indicated that a puffing process may provide an effective method to reduce the extraction time, improve the extraction yield and increase the crude saponin content of red ginseng. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Chung M.-S.,Seoul Development Institute | Kim C.-M.,CJ Corporation | Ha S.-D.,Chung - Ang University
Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2010

Levels of total aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms and various pathogens in convenient foods including ready-to-eat foods (RTE), ready-to-cook foods (RTC) and fresh-cut produce (FCP) in Korea were investigated. A total of 244 samples comprising 145 samples of RTE, 39 samples of RTC and 60 samples of FCP were purchased from hyper chain stores located in six different provinces. APC levels of RTE showed a relatively wide range of 1.9-7.8 log10cfu/g, while APC levels of RTC and FCP were relatively high at 6.3-8.1 log10cfu/g. Coliform contamination was detected in approximately 50% of the samples at levels up to 5 log10cfu/g. Escherichia coli was most frequently detected in convenient foods, and followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in only one sample and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was not detected in any sample. These results show that convenient foods in Korea can be contaminated by various pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, precautionary measures are necessary for consumer protection including improving sanitary conditions in the processing plants for RTE, RTC and FCP products in Korea. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Oh M.H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Oh M.H.,CJ Corporation | Kim J.S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee J.Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

The integration of therapeutic and imaging functions in a nanoscale structure is gaining increasing attention to monitor drug and gene delivery in a non-invasive real-time manner. Here we introduce radio-opaque nanoemulsions incorporating paclitaxel and Bcl-2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) for synergistic anti-cancer theranostics. Water-insoluble paclitaxel is readily dissolved in iodinated poppy seed oil (Lipiodol) and emulsified in an aqueous solution using a mixture of PEGylated phospholipids, cholesterols, and linear polyethylenimine grafted with cholesterols. The prepared cationic nanoemulsions were electrostatically complexed with Bcl-2 siRNA for the co-delivery of paclitaxel and siRNA, inducing a dramatically higher level of apoptosis and cytotoxic activity in breast adenocarcinoma compared to individual treatments. The feasibility of the nanoemulsions for bio-imaging applications is preliminarily investigated using micro-computed tomography with a mouse model. This study suggests that the Lipiodol nanoemulsions can be used as a multifunctional nanocarrier platform for the co-delivery of anti-cancer drugs and siRNA with bio-imaging functionality to efficiently increase the modality of anti-cancer theranostics. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Kwak J.H.,Yonsei University | Paik J.K.,Yonsei University | Kim H.I.,Yonsei University | Kim O.Y.,Dong - A University | And 4 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2012

Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether 4-week of dietary treatment with rice containing resistant starch reduces blood glucose and oxidative stress as well as improves endothelial function. Methods: Patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 90) were randomly assigned to either a group ingesting rice containing 6.51 g resistant starch daily or a control rice group for 4-weeks. We assessed fasting and postprandial levels of glucose and insulin, oxidative stress markers and endothelial function using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT). Results: The diet containing rice with resistant starch reduced fasting insulin and insulin resistance, postprandial glucose (P = 0.010) and insulin levels at 30 min, and glucose and insulin areas under the response curve after the standard meal. Rice with resistant starch also decreased urinary 8-epi-PGF2α and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the RH-PAT index (P < 0.001) and total nitric oxide (NO). Postprandial changes in glucose at 60 and 120 min and areas under the glucose response curve, MDA, RH-PAT, and total NO of the test group differed significantly from those in the control even after adjusting for baseline values. Overall, changes in the RH-PAT index correlated positively with changes in total NO (r = 0.336, P = 0.003) and superoxide dismutase activity (r = 0.381, P = 0.001) and negatively with changes in MDA (r = -0.358, P = 0.002) and 8-epi-PGF2α. Conclusions: In patients with IFG, IGT or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, 4-weeks of dietary treatment with rice containing resistant starch was associated with improved endothelial function with reduction of postprandial glucose and oxidative stress compared with control. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Kim H.,Keio University | Lee B.-S.,Keio University | Lee B.-S.,CJ Corporation | Tomita M.,Keio University | Kanai A.,Keio University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: During transcription, the nontranscribed DNA strand becomes single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which can form secondary structures. Unpaired bases in the ssDNA are less protected from mutagens and hence experience more mutations than do paired bases. These mutations are called transcription-associated mutations. Transcription-associated mutagenesis is increased under stress and depends on the DNA sequence. Therefore, selection might significantly influence protein-coding sequences in terms of the transcription-associated mutability per transcription event under stress to improve the survival of Escherichia coli. Methodology/Principal Findings: The mutability index (MI) was developed by Wright et al. to estimate the relative transcription-associated mutability of bases per transcription event. Using the most stable fold of each ssDNA that have an average length n, MI was defined as (the number of folds in which the base is unpaired)/n ×(highest -ΔG of all n folds in which the base is unpaired), where ΔG is the free energy. The MI values show a significant correlation with mutation data under stress but not with spontaneous mutations in E. coli. Protein sequence diversity is preferred under stress but not under favorable conditions. Therefore, we evaluated the selection pressure on MI in terms of the protein sequence diversity for all the protein-coding sequences in E. coli. The distributions of the MI values were lower at bases that could be substituted with each of the other three bases without affecting the amino acid sequence than at bases that could not be so substituted. Start codons had lower distributions of MI values than did nonstart codons. Conclusions/Significance: Our results suggest that the majority of protein-coding sequences have evolved to promote protein sequence diversity and to reduce gene knockout under stress. Consequently, transcription-associated mutagenesis increases protein sequence diversity more effectively than does random mutagenesis under stress. Nonrandom transcription-associated mutagenesis under stress should improve the survival of E. coli. © 2010 Kim et al.

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