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Sharma S.,Civil Veterinary Hospital | Morel M.D.,Aberystwyth University | Dhaliwal G.S.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

Decreased reproductive performance due to summer stress is a well known phenomenon in farm livestock. Whether this occurs in the mare and specifically how this might affect postpartum reproductive activity and performance, especially at Foal Heat (FH), is unknown. This study, therefore, aims to investigate this and the factors that might affect postpartum reproductive activity. Reproductive records of 228 Thoroughbred mares (694 mare years) bred in subtropical north-western India were retrospectively analysed. Overt oestrous activity occurred within 21 d postpartum in 92.94% (645/694) of mares. Significantly (p < 0.001) more April foaling mares (97.37%, 185/190) expressed postpartum oestrous activity than those foaling in January (83.61%; 51/61) and February (88.49; 123/ 139). Similarly significantly (p < 0.01) fewer multiparous mares failed to demonstrate oestrous activity than primiparous mares (6.12% vs.15.07%; 38/621 vs. 11/73, respectively). 190 of these 694 mares were additionally monitored to confirm ovulation; in these mares onset of FH (oestrus plus confirmed ovulation) occurred 8.42 ± 0.17 d and first ovulation 13.64 ± 0.20 d postpartum. Month, stud farm, year, and parity did not affect interval from parturition to FH onset or to first ovulation; or FH onset to ovulation. In FH bred mares Day 16 pregnancy rate and overall foaling rate were 53.76% (100/186) and 46.24% (86/186) respectively and were similar to those of mares bred later postpartum. FH pregnancy rates were not affected by stud, season, month, year, number of matings, or day of ovulation but were significantly (p < 0.008) lowered by increasing mare age. Significantly (p < 0.01) lower Day 16 pregnancy rates were observed in uterine treated mares compared to untreated mares (31.09% vs. 57.96%; 9/29 vs. 91/157, respectively), this difference was not evident during the rest of pregnancy. In conclusion, postpartum reproductive and ovarian activity appears to be affected by environment, i.e., delayed in subtropical kept Thoroughbred mares compared to those kept in temperate climates. However, resulting reproductive performance at FH and the factors affecting postpartum reproductive activity are similar. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Manzoor S.,Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Hussain Z.,Civil Veterinary Hospital | Rahman S.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hussain I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
British Poultry Science | Year: 2013

1. Domestic fowl and free-living birds were examined for the presence or absence of antibodies against hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) using an indirect haemagglutination assay. 2. Two-hundred and eighty serum samples of commercial (45 broilers, 20 adult layers and 15 Fayoumi fowl) and wild birds, including 65 peafowl, 45 pigeons, 10 crows, 30 house sparrows, 10 doves, 15 ducks, 10 parrots and 15 guinea fowl, were collected and examined. 3. The percentage of HPS-positive serum samples was 80% in house crows, 78% in pigeons, 7% in house sparrows and 6% in peafowl. 4. The sera obtained from parrots, doves, ducks and guinea fowl were all negative. 5. This study suggests that crows and pigeons could be carriers of the HPS agent. © 2013 Copyright © 2013 British Poultry Science Ltd.

Sharma S.,Civil Veterinary Hospital | Davies Morel M.C.G.,Aberystwyth University | Dhaliwal G.S.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Dadarwal D.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010

Ultrasonographic pregnancy records of 195 mares from six Thoroughbred stud farms, over a period of 7 years were retrospectively analysed to assess the effect of various factors on embryonic vesicle (EV) fixation pattern and pregnancy outcome. Of the total of 746 pregnancies analysed, significantly (p < 0.01) more EV fixations were evident in the right uterine horn than in the left (53.35% vs 46.65% respectively). There was no significant effect of either, the side of ovulation, or age of the mare, on the side of EV fixation. However, EV fixation, was significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to occur in the right uterine horn in maiden and barren mares (65.75% vs 57.45% respectively). The age and reproductive status of the mare as well as foal heat breeding failed to demonstrate a consistent effect on pregnancy loss relative to the side of EV fixation. In lactating and foal heat bred mares, EVs were significantly (p < 0.0001) more frequently established in the contralateral horn to the one from which the mare delivered her most recent foal. In lactating mares, significantly (p < 0.05) higher embryonic and pregnancy losses were observed in the ipsilateral horn. In conclusion, (a) side of EV fixation was (i) independent of the side of ovulation and mare age (ii) significantly (p < 0.001) affected by reproductive status, (b) neither age of mare nor reproductive status had any effect on pregnancy loss rates relative to the side of EV fixation and (c) in lactating mares the EV had a greater chance of fixation and survival in the horn contralateral to the one from which the mare delivered her most recent foal. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Sharma S.,Civil Veterinary Hospital | Dhaliwal G.S.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Dadarwal D.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

Service records of 253 mares (1181 mare-years) spanning over 7 consecutive years, from nine organized Thoroughbred stud farms, situated in the subtropical northwestern India were retrospectively analyzed to assess their reproductive performance. The overall per cycle pregnancy rate at Day 16 and overall foaling rates were 50.30% and 68.95%, respectively, and were significantly higher in mares aged 3-7 years than ≥18 years old mares. The late embryonic losses (9.86%) that occurred between Days 16 and 39 post-ovulation contributed more than 50% of the overall detected pregnancy losses (19.11%). The overall percent detected pregnancy losses were lower in mares at ages 3-7 years compared to those at ages ≥18 years (14.78% vs. 46.43%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Chronic barren and habitual aborter mares tended to affect reproductive efficiency of mares. Fifty percent of the mares that experienced ≥2 consecutive abortions or barren years, again stayed aborted or barren in the next seasons, respectively. No effect of numbers of matings per oestrus was observed on overall fertility. Neither the induction of oestrus nor ovulation by exogenous hormonal treatment had any effect on most of the analyzed reproductive parameters. Regarding breeding month or years, the reproductive efficiency did not differ significantly. The incidence of multiple pregnancies was 5.40% and percent late embryonic loses were higher (P = 0.0016) in twin (21.98%) than singleton (8.64%) pregnancies. In conclusion, comparatively lower fertility rates were recorded in Thoroughbred mares bred under Indian subtropical climatic conditions than those reported from temperate regions that might be due to difference in breeding management rather than prevailing environment. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sharma S.,University of Alberta | Gosal N.S.,Edmonton North Animal Hospital | Varun,Civil Veterinary Hospital
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2012

A unique case of idiopathic fibrinous pericarditis in a Nili-Ravi buffalo was presented. The clinical observations, diagnostic procedure and necropsy findings are discussed in detail.

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