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Arauz A.,National Institute of Neurology | Ruiz A.,National Institute of Neurology | Pacheco G.,National Institute of Neurology | Rojas P.,National Institute of Neurology | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2013

Background and purpose: To evaluate the incidence and predictors of ischaemic recurrent stroke and the adverse events of antithrombotic therapy in patients with first intra- or extracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) who were treated with aspirin or oral anticoagulation (OA). Methods: A 21-year database of consecutive patients with confirmed diagnoses of VAD (n = 110, 63% men; mean age 37.9 ± 8.5 years) without intracerebral hemorrhage and who were treated with aspirin or OA were analyzed retrospectively. In all cases, the admission diagnosis was ischaemic stroke. Three groups were defined according to the site of the dissection: (i) extracranial, (ii) intracranial, and (iii) intra-/extracranial. Clinical follow-up was obtained by neurologic examination. Outcome measures were (i) recurrent ischaemic events (ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack) and (ii) intra- and extracranial major bleeding. Results: No difference in age, smoking, or hypertension was found between patients treated with OA (n = 49) and those treated with aspirin (n = 50). Extracranial artery dissection (49%) had preponderance over intracranial (27%) or intra-/extracranial (23%) location. During the follow-up, recurrent ischaemic events were rare (one case). There were no bleeding complications. The treatment that was used did not influence the functional outcome or recanalization. A good functional outcome (modified Rankin score ≤ 2) was observed in 82 patients. Conclusions: Although this was a non-randomized study, our data suggest that the frequency of recurrent ischaemic stroke in patients with intra- or extracranial VAD is low and most likely independent of the type of antithrombotic treatment. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.


Gonzalez-Aldaco K.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | Torres-Valadez R.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | Trujillo-Trujillo M.E.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | Roman S.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | And 2 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2015

The mechanisms related to the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been primarily studied in regions where the infection is endemic. Results of prior studies have been extrapolated to populations with low endemicity, such as Mexico. Herein, we determined the cytokine profiles in serum samples from Mexican patients who spontaneously cleared HCV and patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1a. Chronic HCV-infected patients displayed increased interleukin (IL)-8 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (CCL-5) secretion, whereas patients who spontaneously cleared HCV showed augmented levels of IL-1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-2 (CCL-8), IL-13 and IL-15. Our study suggests that cytokine profiles may predict disease outcome during HCV infection. © 2015, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.


Roman S.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | Tanaka Y.,Nagoya City University | Khan A.,Nagoya City University | Kurbanov F.,Nagoya City University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2010

Mexico is considered to be a low endemic country for HBV infection. However, a high anti-HBc against a low hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence is the reported characteristic of native Mexicans. HBV diagnosis and genotype distribution was examined in native populations (Nahuas and Huichol, n = 306), and compared to a non-native population (Mestizos, n = 17). Overall, 6% of the natives were positive for HBsAg and 33% had detectable anti-HBc. HBsAg prevalence was lower in Nahuas compared to Huichols (1.4% vs. 9.4%, P < 0.002). Occult hepatitis B was detected in 14.2% (41/289) of natives, who either tested positive (5.88%, 17/289 HBsAg-negative) or negative for anti-HBc marker (8%, 24/289 HBsAg-negative). Age-adjusted anti-HBc seroprevalence and HBsAg quantitation revealed a sub-optimal sensitivity of conventional immunoassays. Nahuas had HBV/H and Huichol had HBV/A as the predominant genotypes followed by genotypes D, C, B, A, and D, G and H, respectively. A less variable HBV/H was characteristic in Mestizos, compared to a much variable HBV/H identified among the Nahuas. In conclusion, these findings indicate a high HBV endemicity among native Mexican groups where occult B infection is common. The different distribution of HBV genotypes among natives suggests multiple reservoirs of HBV from which these genotypes spread into the local communities. High anti-HBc seroprevalence against a low HBsAg prevalence ratemay be due to the limited sensitivity of the immunoassays for the detection of HBsAg that are available in Mexico and/or unknown immunogenetic characteristics of native Mexicans. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


PubMed | Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Korea University, O.I. Corporation, MSD Corporation and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health and quality of life outcomes | Year: 2017

Herpes zoster (HZ) has a significant negative effect on the productive work life of individuals, and has been shown to be responsible for cases of absenteeism, presenteeism and decreased work effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate health utility scores and associated predictors in an actively employed population of Herpes Zoster (HZ) patients with and without work time loss (WTL).This was a pooled analysis of the prospective, observational MASTER cohort studies, conducted in 8 countries across North America, Latin America and Asia. A total of 428 HZ patients engaged in full or part time work were included. WTL, defined as missing1 partial or full work day, and work effectiveness, reported on a scale of 0-100%, were evaluated with the Work and Productivity Questionnaire (WPQ). The Pearson product-moment correlation was used to assess the correlation between work effectiveness and HRQoL. Mixed models with repeated measures assessed the relationship between HZ-related WTL over a 6-month follow-up period, and HRQoL, as evaluated by the EQ-5D. Additional predictors of HRQoL were also identified.Overall, 57.7% of respondents reported WTL. Mean (SD) percent work effectiveness of patients in the WTL group was significantly lower compared to non-WTL (NWTL) patients at baseline [50.3 (31.6) vs. 71.4 (27.8); p<0.001]. Patients in the WTL group also reported lower health utility scores at baseline and overall than their NWTL counterparts, with WTL identified as an independent negative predictor of both the EQ-5D summary scores and the EQ-5D VAS (p<0.001). Decrease in work effectiveness was negatively associated with HRQoL overall (p<0.001). Predictors of lower HRQoL were worst Zoster Brief Pain Inventory (ZBPI) pain score, the presence of HZ complications and country income (predictor of EQ-5D VAS only).HZ adversely impacts the work and productive life of actively employed individuals. In turn, HZ-related reductions in work effectiveness and work time are associated with a negative effect on HRQoL.


Chiquete E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Ruiz-Sandoval J.L.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | Murillo-Bonilla L.M.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Arauz A.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia | And 7 more authors.
Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Current evidence shows that uric acid is a potent antioxidant whose serum concentration increases rapidly after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Nevertheless, the re-lationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and AIS outcome remains debatable. We aimed to describe the prognostic significance of SUA in AIS. Methods: We studied 463 patients (52% men, mean age 68 years, 13% with glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min at hospital arrival) with AIS pertaining to the multicenter registry PREMIER, who had SUA measurements at hospital presentation. Multivariate models were constructed to analyze the association of SUA with functional outcome as assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 30-day, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. A mRS 0-1 was regarded as a very good outcome. Results: Mean SUA concentration at hospital arrival was 6.1 ± 3.7 mg/dl (362.8 ± 220.0 μmol/l). Compared with cases with higher SUA levels at hospital admission, patients with ≤4.5 mg/dl (≤267.7 μmol/l; the lowest tertile of the sample) had more cases of a very good 30-day outcome (30.5 vs. 18.9%, respectively; p = 0.004). SUA was not associated with mortality or functional dependence (mRS >2) at 30 days, or with any outcome measure at 3, 6 or 12 months poststroke. After adjustment for age, gender, stroke type and severity (NIHSS <9), time since event onset, serum creatinine, hypertension, diabetes and smoking, a SUA ≤4.5 mg/dl (≤267.7 μmol/l) was positively associated with a very good short-term outcome (odds ratio: 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-2.95; negative predictive value: 81.1%), but not at 3, 6 or 12 months of follow-up. When NIHSS was entered in the multivariate model as a continuous variable, the independent association of SUA with outcome was lost. Compared with cases with higher levels, patients with SUA ≤4.5 mg/dl (≤267.7 μmol/l) were more frequently younger than 55 years, women, with mild strokes, with normal serum creatinine and fewer had hypertension. The time since event onset to hospital arrival was not significantly associated with AIS severity or SUA levels; nevertheless, a nonsignificant tendency was observed for patients with severe strokes and high SUA levels arriving in <24 h. Conclusions: A low SUA concentration is modestly associated with a very good short-term outcome. Our findings support the hypothesis that SUA is more a marker of the magnitude of the cerebral infarction than an independent predictor of stroke outcome. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Background: Overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. Since neurocognitive deficits following an episode of HE may not be fully reversible, prophylactic therapy of overt HE is warranted. Objective: To evaluate whether the use of lactulose reduce the incidence of clinically overt hepatic encephalopathy in bleeding cirrhotic patients. Material and method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials comparing lactulose with placebo or no intervention in adult patients with liver cirrhosis and acute GI bleeding. To be eligible, studies must assess the efficacy of lactulose in preventing an episode of overt hepatic encephalopathy as primary prophylaxis. Two reviewers extracted data, assessed risk of bias and summarized strength of evidence using the GRADE approach. Results: Low quality evidence from two trials suggested that lactulose significantly reduce the incidence of overt HE in bleeding cirrhotic patients (relative risk, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.64, p=0.002] I2 =0%). Compared with no intervention, lactulose significantly increased the incidence of diarrhea (relative risk, 10.23 [95% CI, 1.31 to 79.84, p=0.03]; I2 =0%). Conclusions: The available evidence suggests a potential effect of lactulose in the prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy in bleeding cirrhotic patients. Further research is necessary to clarify effects on long-term clinical outcomes and safety.


Cahn P.,Fundacion Huesped | Andrade-Villanueva J.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | Arribas J.R.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Gatell J.M.,University of Barcelona | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Daily oral triple therapy is effective at halting HIV disease progression, but can have toxic effects and is costly. We investigated whether dual therapy with lopinavir and ritonavir plus lamivudine is non-inferior to standard triple therapy. Methods: The GARDEL study (Global AntiRetroviral Design Encompassing Lopinavir/r and Lamivudine vs LPV/r based standard therapy) is a 48 week, phase 3, randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial in antiretroviral-therapy-naive adults (age ≥18 years) with documented HIV-1 RNA viral load of at least 1000 copies per mL. The study was done at 19 centres in six countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to dual therapy or triple therapy by sealed envelopes, in blocks of four, stratified by baseline viral load (<100-000 vs ≥100-000 copies per mL). Dual therapy consisted of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg, both twice daily. Triple therapy consisted of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily and lamivudine or emtricitabine plus another nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) in fixed-dose combination. Efficacy was analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. The primary endpoint was virological response rate, defined as the proportion of patients with HIV RNA less than 50 copies per mL at 48 weeks. Dual therapy was classed as non-inferior to triple therapy if the lower bound of the 95% CI for the difference between groups was no lower than -12%. Patients and investigators were unmasked to treatment allocation. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01237444. Findings: Between Dec 10, 2010, and May 15, 2012, 217 patients were randomly assigned to the dual-therapy group and 209 to the triple-therapy group. 198 patients in the dual-therapy group and 175 in the triple-therapy group completed 48 weeks of treatment. At week 48, 189 patients (88·3%) in the dual-therapy group and 169 (83·7%) in the triple-therapy group had viral response (difference 4·6%, 95% CI -2·2 to 11·8; p=0·171). Patients with baseline viral load of at least 100-000 copies per mL showed similar results (87·2% vs 77·9%, respectively; difference 9·3%, 95% CI -2·8 to 21·5; p=0·145). Toxicity-related or tolerability-related discontinuations were more common in the triple-therapy group (n=10 [4·9%]) than in the dual-therapy group (n=1 [0·4%]; difference 4·5%, 95% CI -8·1 to -0·9; p=0·011). 65 adverse events in the dual-therapy group and 88 in the triple-therapy group were possibly or probably drug related (p=0·007). Two serious adverse events occurred, both in the dual-therapy arm, one of which (a case of gastritis) was reported as possibly or probably related to drug treatment. Interpretation: Dual therapy with lopinavir and ritonavir plus lamivudine regimen warrants further clinical research and consideration as a potential therapeutic option for antiretroviral-therapy-naive patients. Funding: Fundación Huésped and AbbVie. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Garcia-Banuelos J.,University of Guadalajara | Panduro A.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | Gordillo-Bastidas D.,University of Guadalajara | Gordillo-Bastidas E.,University of Guadalajara | And 5 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2012

Background: Alcoholic cirrhosis constitutes a major public health problem in the world where ADH1B, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 polymorphisms could be playing an important role. We determined ADH1B*2, ALDH2*2, and CYP2E1*c2 allele frequencies in healthy control individuals (C) and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) from western Mexico. Methods: Ninety C and 41 patients with AC were studied. Genotype and allele frequency were determined through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Results: Polymorphic allele distribution in AC was 1.6%ADH1B*2, 0.0%ALDH2*2, and 19.5%CYP2E1*c2; in C: 6.1%ADH1B*2, 0%ALDH2*2, and 10.6%CYP2E1*c2. CYP2E1*c2 polymorphic allele and c1/c2 genotype frequency were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) in patients with AC when compared to C. Patients with AC, carrying the CYP2E1*c2 allele, exhibited more decompensated liver functioning evaluated by total bilirubin and prothrombin time, than c1 allele carrying patients (p<0.05). Cirrhosis severity, assessed by Child's Pugh score and mortality, was higher in patients carrying the c2 allele, although not statistically significant. Conclusions: In this study, CYP2E1*c2 allele was associated with susceptibility to AC; meanwhile, ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 alleles were not. CYP2E1*c2 allele was associated with AC severity, which could probably be attributed to the oxidative stress promoted by this polymorphic form. Further studies to clearly establish CYP2E1*c2 clinical relevance in the development of alcohol-induced liver damage and its usefulness as a probable prognostic marker, should be performed. Also, increasing the number of patients and including a control group conformed by alcoholic patients free of liver damage may render more conclusive results. These findings contribute to the understanding of the influence of gene variations in AC development among populations, alcohol metabolism, and pharmacogenetics. © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.


Zuniga-Ramirez C.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | Micheli F.,Hospital Of Clinicas Jose Of San Martin
Future Neurology | Year: 2013

Preladenant (SCH 420814) is a potent selective antagonist at the adenosine A2A receptor that is being studied for treatment in early Parkinson"s disease (PD) as a monotherapy, and in moderate-to-severe PD as an add on to levodopa therapy. Unlike other drugs used for this disease, preladenant modulates adenosine action at the striatal level in order to block the inhibitory action of the basal ganglia output nuclei. Animal models of PD suggested that preladenant could be an effective treatment, which was further supported in a Phase II study of subjects with idiopathic PD who demonstrated a benefit in reducing off-time with an increase in on-time. In this article, we review current perspectives concerning pharmacological approaches to PD, the pharmacological properties of preladenant, its efficiency and safety, as well as the results reported for parkinsonian subjects treated with this drug. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.


Aguirre-Avalos G.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde
Revista médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Year: 2010

Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. It is difficult to control and treat. The most seriously ill patients and those previously infected are more likely than others to be infected or colonized by A. baumannii. The epidemiology of A. baumannii infection is complex, with the coexistence of epidemic and endemic infections. The A. baumannii are the species isolated in 90% of the nosocomial infections and in 92% of the nosocomial bacteremias. The intensive care units presented the greater number of nosocomial bacteremias by A. baumannii. The most common sources of A. baumannii are respiratory tract, surgical wound, catheter, urinary tract and others. The most frequently clinical manifestation is sepsis and a fulminating course is observed when the patient presents septic shock. Progressive resistance of A. baumannii to antimicrobial limits the therapeutic options. The patients with A. baumannii multidrug-resistant present an excessive rate of attributed mortality, length of stay and costs.

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