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Liu T.,Civil Aviation Medicine Center | Zhang C.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Liu C.,Cangzhou Technical College
Journal of travel medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Several studies have indicated an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) among female flight attendants (FFAs); however, the results from epidemiological studies were not consistent. We thus conducted an updated meta-analysis to re-assess the risk of BC among FFAs, according to the MOOSE guideline.METHODS: A systematical search of PubMed and Embase for relevant observational studies up to March 2016 was performed, supplemented by manual reviews of bibliographies in relevant studies. A random effect model was conducted to calculate the combined standard incidence ratio (SIR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) in BC risk.RESULTS: Of the 719 citations retrieved, 10 were included, with more than 31 679 participants and 821 new cases. The combined SIR (95% CI) for BC in FFAs was 1.40 (95%CI 1.30-1.50), with no significant heterogeneity (P = 0.744; I(2 )=( )0.0%) or publication bias (Begg's test: z = 0.72, P = 0.474; Egger's test: t = 0.25, P = 0.805) among the included studies. The results were not significantly modified by publication year, geographic area, study quality or whether the fertility variables were adjusted.CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggests that FFAs have a higher risk of BC compared with the general population. More vigorous studies with larger sample sizes based on other populations, including the Chinese, are needed. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


Lu M.,Peking University | Guo H.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Fan D.,Peking University
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2017

Kennedy's disease (KD), also known as spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), is a rare x-linked genetic disorder which is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy. In previous clinical trials, KD patients had been assessed using the ALSFRS scale, which was specifically designed for ALS patients. However, the progression of KD is very slow, and thus, the ALSFRS does not accurately reflect changes in the clinical condition of KD patient. Here, we developed the KD 1234 scale which designed specially for KD. We evaluated KD 1234 and ALSFRS in 81 KD patients and 100 healthy age-matched male participants. Of 81 cases, 52 were followed up after 32. months. Scale reliability was assessed using inter-rater reliability, split-half reliability and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α coefficient). Scale validity was evaluated using content and structure validity. Longitudinal analysis was performed. The results showed the KD 1234 scale was simple and easy to operate, with good reliability, validity and reactivity. We think this new scale can quantitatively evaluate the clinical condition of KD patients and any changes in this condition, and is thus suitable for clinical studies. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang J.,Capital Medical University | Wang P.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Wang X.,Capital Medical University | Zheng Y.,Peking University | And 2 more authors.
JAMA Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

IMPORTANCE: Appropriate antibiotic use is a key strategy to control antibacterial resistance. The first step in achieving this is to identify the major problems in antibiotic prescription in health care facilities, especially in primary health care settings, which is where most patients receive medical care. OBJECTIVE: To identify current patterns of antibiotic use and explore the reasons for inappropriate prescription in primary health care settings in China. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 48 primary health care facilities in China were randomly selected from 6 provinces at various levels of economic development. Data for the years 2009 through 2011 from 39 qualifying facilities (23 city and 16 rural primary health care centers) were analyzed retrospectively. The study sample consisted of prescription records for 7311 outpatient visits and 2888 inpatient hospitalizations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: General health center information, drug usage, disease diagnoses, and antibiotic use by outpatients and inpatients were surveyed. Cases of inappropriate antibiotic prescription were identified. RESULTS: Most staff in the primary health care facilities had less than a college degree, and the medical staff consisted primarily of physician assistants, assistant pharmacists, nurses, and nursing assistants. The median (range) governmental contribution to each facility was 34.0% (3.6%-92.5%) of total revenue. The facilities prescribed a median (range) of 28 (8-111) types of antibiotics, including 34 (10-115) individual agents. Antibiotics were included in 52.9% of the outpatient visit prescription records: of these, only 39.4%were prescribed properly. Of the inpatients, 77.5%received antibiotic therapy: of these, only 24.6%were prescribed properly. Antibiotics were prescribed for 78.0% of colds and 93.5%of cases of acute bronchitis. Of the antibiotic prescriptions, 28.0%contained cephalosporins and 15.7% fluoroquinolones. A total of 55.0%of the antibiotic prescriptions were for antibiotic combination therapy with 2 or more agents. In nonsurgical inpatients in cities, the mean (SD) duration of antibiotic therapy was 10.1 (7.8) days. Of the surgical patients, 98.0%received antibiotics, with 63.8% of these prescriptions for prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in Chinese primary health care facilities, and a large proportion of these prescriptions are inappropriate. Frequent and inappropriate use of antibiotics in primary health care settings in China is a serious problem that likely contributes to antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Lu B.,Capital Medical University | Li D.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Cui Y.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Sui W.,Capital Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2014

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) was the main causative organism of invasive infections in newborns due to vertical transmission from the colonized mothers. The study was undertaken to determine colonization rate, serotype distribution, genotypic characterization, antibiotic susceptibility profiles and molecular characteristics of erythromycin-resistant strains of GBS in pregnant women in Beijing, China. Vaginal-rectal swabs were collected from a total of 2850 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, in which 7.1% were GBS positive. Serotypes III, Ia and V predominated. All isolates were penicillin susceptible, whereas the resistance rates for erythromycin and clindamycin were strikingly high. © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


Yang J.,Capital Medical University | Wang G.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Gao C.,Capital Medical University | Shao G.,Shanghai Minxing Wujing Hospital | Kang N.,Capital Medical University
Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Aims: To evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and spinal cord edema after acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Main methods: Ninety-six healthy adult Sprague - Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham, sham + HBO, SCI, and SCI + HBO. Each group was subdivided into 4 subgroups of 6 rats each: 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 5 d post-injury. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, interleukin (IL-6), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured using ELISA. The water content of the spinal cord was also measured by Elliot equation. Key finding: MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and spinal cord water content increased significantly in the SCI group compared to those in the sham and sham + HBO groups at different time points after SCI (P < 0.01). The MMP-2 level was significantly different between the SCI and SCI + HBO groups at 72 h after SCI (P < 0.05), while the MMP-9 level was significantly different at 48 h, 72 h, and 5 d (P < 0.05). The water content of the spinal cord was significantly higher in the SCI group at 5 d after SCI (P < 0. 01). MMP-2 (P < 0.05) and MMP-9 (P < 0.01) levels were positively correlated with spinal cord water content. Significance: HBO reduced SCI-induced spinal cord edema, stabilized the blood-spinal cord barrier, and promoted recovery of neuronal function by down regulating the expression of IL-6, MMP-2, and MMP-9 and up regulating the expression of VEGF. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Yang J.,Capital Medical University | Liu X.,Capital Medical University | Zhou Y.,Shenyang Medical College | Wang G.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Spine | Year: 2013

STUDY DESIGN.: We presented an insight into the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on spinal cord injury (SCI), aiming to uncover the dynamics of high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) after HBO intervention in rats with acute SCI. OBJECTIVE.: Prognosis of SCI is directly linked with the control of secondary injury, in which the inflammatory response plays a leading role. HBO therapy can reduce this secondary damage to the spinal cord. We used an animal model to characterize the therapeutic effect of HBO on SCI. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: A growing number of studies have confirmed that HBO has gradually become an indispensable element after SCI in reducing neurological disorders, and improving the physical function and quality of life of patients. The role of HBO in the process of HMGB1/NF-κB- related secondary inflammatory responses in SCI has yet to be characterized. METHODS.: Rats were randomly categorized into sham, sham + HBO, SCI, and SCI + HBO groups. The expression levels of HMGB1 and NF-κB were measured at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after SCI. RESULTS.: After SCI, significant increases in mRNA and protein expression were observed for both HMGB1 and NF-κB (P< 0.01) compared with sham group. HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression levels were decreased after HBO intervention. The decreases were significant at days 7 and 14 (P< 0.05) post-HBO. In the SCI + HBO group, the significant decreases in NF-κB mRNA and protein expression levels were also observed at days 3, 7, and 14 (P< 0.05). After HBO intervention, a significant increase was seen in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score at days 7 and 14 (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION.: HBO intervention may reduce the secondary damage of SCI caused by inflammatory responses via downregulating the expression of HMGB1/NF-κB, and promoting the repair of neurological function. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.


Pan H.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Xie X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Chen D.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zhang J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in brain injury after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Recent studies demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor compounds preserve mitochondrial morphology and function during ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we sought to explore the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on brain mitochondria 24 h after cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 min cardiac arrest and then resuscitated successfully. Rats received NaHS (0.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl, 1.67 ml/kg) 1 min before the start of CPR intravenously, followed by a continuous infusion of NaHS (1.5 mg/kg/h) or vehicle (5 ml/kg/h) for 3 h. Neurological deficit was evaluated 24 h after resuscitation and then cortex was collected for assessments. As a result, we found that rats treated with NaHS revealed an improved neurological outcome and cortex mitochondrial morphology 24 h after resuscitation. We also observed that NaHS therapy reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and calcium overload, inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pores, preserved mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated ATP level and ameliorated the cytochrome c abnormal distribution. Further studies indicated that NaHS administration increased mitochondrial biogenesis in cortex at the same time. Our findings suggested that administration of NaHS 1 min prior CPR and followed by a continuous infusion ameliorated neurological dysfunction 24 h after resuscitation, possibly through mitochondria preservation as well as by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang H.-L.,Civil Aviation General Hospital
International Eye Science | Year: 2016

AIM: To investigate and analyze the prevalence and the influencing factors on retinal arteriosclerosis in civil aviators of different ages. METHODS: Two thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight commissioned civil aviators who received medical exa mination in Civil Aviation General Hospital from July 2014 to July 2015 were randomly divided into three groups: group A (1311 aviators aged 22-39), group B (618 aviators age 40-49), group C (849 aviators age 50-59). Aviators over 40 years old, were divided into two groups: group with retinal atherosclerosis and group without retinal atherosclerosis according to the results of fundus exa mination. Medical exa mination data of the aviators were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 2 778 aviators, 334 (12.02%) were detected with retinal arteriosclerosis, among which 318 aviators were classified as grade I, and 16 aviators as grade II. The retinal arteriosclerosis prevalence of group A, B, and C increased with age, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Biochemical tests showed that the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, high fasting blood glucose and overweight increased in group with retinal arteriosclerosis compared with that in group without retinal arteriosclerosis, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of retinal arteriosclerosis in commissioned civil aviators was 12.02%, and most of the retinal arteriosclerosis was classified as grade I. In aviators over 40 years old, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, high fasting blood glucose and overweight were important factors in the development of retinal arteriosclerosis. Copyright 2016 by the IJO Press.


Li B.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Wang Y.,Civil Aviation General Hospital
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed statistical differences. However, no palatal alveolar bone widths showed any statistical differences. The width reduction of alveolar bone was 1.2, 1.6, and 2.7 mm at the deep, middle, and shallow layers, respectively. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides of T both showed statistical differences, which was 1.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively. © 2014, Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Binghuai L.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Yanli S.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Shuchen Z.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | Fengxia Z.,Civil Aviation General Hospital | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a known leading causative pathogen of neonatal infection. Efficient screening and identification of women colonized with GBS is important for the prevention of invasive neonatal infections. Methods: A total of 628 vaginal/rectal specimens were collected from pregnant women in Beijing, China. The chromogenic medium chromID Strepto B agar (STRB) was evaluated for its reliability in screening GBS from the vaginal/rectal swabs; results were compared to those of blood agar plates (BAP). Furthermore, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to confirm the colonies suspected of being GBS on STRB. Results: STRB showed excellent performance for GBS detection and outperformed BAP due to its higher sensitivity. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS could reliably differentiate the putative GBS isolates on STRB. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that STRB combined with MALDI-TOF MS is a fast, sensitive, and accurate method for the identification of GBS-colonized pregnant women. © 2014 The Authors.

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