Civil Aviation and Meteorology

Senegal, United Kingdom

Civil Aviation and Meteorology

Senegal, United Kingdom
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Kniveton D.,University of Sussex | Visman E.,King's College London | Tall A.,Agriculture and Food Security | Diop M.,Civil Aviation and Meteorology | And 2 more authors.
Disasters | Year: 2015

While climate science has made great progress in the projection of weather and climate information, its uptake by local communities remains largely elusive. This paper describes two innovative approaches that strengthen understanding between the providers and users of weather and climate information and support-appropriate application: (1) knowledge timelines, which compare different sources and levels of certainty in community and scientific weather and climate information; and (2) participatory downscaling, which supports users to translate national and regional information into a range of outcomes at the local level. Results from piloting these approaches among flood-prone communities in Senegal and drought-prone farmers in Kenya highlight the importance of co-producing 'user-useful' climate information. Recognising that disaster risk management actions draw on a wide range of knowledge sources, climate information that can effectively support community-based decision-making needs to be integrated with local knowledge systems and based on an appreciation of the inherent uncertainty of weather and climate information. © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.


Abdul-Wahab S.A.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Hinai H.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Najar K.A.,Civil Aviation and Meteorology | Al-Kalbani M.S.,Sultan Qaboos University
Water International | Year: 2010

Data on fog and rainwater collection were collected by building large residential-type fog collectors at a selected house located in the mountainous region of the Dhofar area, in the southern part of the Sultanate of Oman, during the monsoon season between 4 July 2006 and 3 September 2006. Three different types of screen material were tested: aluminium shade mesh, green plastic shade mesh and aluminium solid plate. The aluminium shade mesh collected by far the most water, followed by the green plastic shade mesh. The total collection of the aluminium solid plate was relatively insignificant. © 2010 International Water Resources Association.


Gunawardhana L.N.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Rawas G.A.,Sultan Qaboos University | Kazama S.,Tohoku University | Al-Najar K.A.,Civil Aviation and Meteorology
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

The objective of this study is to investigate how the magnitude and occurrence of extreme precipitation events are affected by climate change and to predict the subsequent impacts on the wadi flow regime in the Al-Khod catchment area, Muscat, Oman. The tank model, a lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model, was used to simulate the wadi flow. Precipitation extremes and their potential future changes were predicted using six-member ensembles of general circulation models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Yearly maxima of the daily precipitation and wadi flow for varying return periods were compared for observed and projected data by fitting the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution function. Flow duration curves (FDC) were developed and compared for the observed and projected wadi flows. The results indicate that extreme precipitation events consistently increase by the middle of the twenty-first century for all return periods (49–52 %), but changes may become more profound by the end of the twenty-first century (81–101 %). Consequently, the relative change in extreme wadi flow is greater than twofolds for all of the return periods in the late twenty-first century compared to the relative changes that occur in the mid-century period. Precipitation analysis further suggests that greater than 50 % of the precipitation may be associated with extreme events in the future. The FDC analysis reveals that changes in low-to-moderate flows (Q60–Q90) may not be statistically significant, whereas increases in high flows (Q5) are statistically robust (20 and 25 % for the mid- and late-century periods, respectively). © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


PubMed | Tohoku University, Civil Aviation and Meteorology and Sultan Qaboos University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2015

The objective of this study is to investigate how the magnitude and occurrence of extreme precipitation events are affected by climate change and to predict the subsequent impacts on the wadi flow regime in the Al-Khod catchment area, Muscat, Oman. The tank model, a lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model, was used to simulate the wadi flow. Precipitation extremes and their potential future changes were predicted using six-member ensembles of general circulation models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Yearly maxima of the daily precipitation and wadi flow for varying return periods were compared for observed and projected data by fitting the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution function. Flow duration curves (FDC) were developed and compared for the observed and projected wadi flows. The results indicate that extreme precipitation events consistently increase by the middle of the twenty-first century for all return periods (49-52%), but changes may become more profound by the end of the twenty-first century (81-101%). Consequently, the relative change in extreme wadi flow is greater than twofolds for all of the return periods in the late twenty-first century compared to the relative changes that occur in the mid-century period. Precipitation analysis further suggests that greater than 50% of the precipitation may be associated with extreme events in the future. The FDC analysis reveals that changes in low-to-moderate flows (Q60-Q90) may not be statistically significant, whereas increases in high flows (Q5) are statistically robust (20 and 25% for the mid- and late-century periods, respectively).

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