News Article | April 20, 2017
We all like to keep things clean, and disinfectants help that happen. Unfortunately, one of the most widely used antimicrobial products in use since 1964, triclosan, is also one of the top 10 environmental contaminants in rivers - possibly disrupting the endocrine systems of wildlife and causing toxic effects to their reproduction and development. Now, a new study at the University of Nevada, Reno has found a potential way to reduce the presence of the antimicrobial that is also linked to problems with antibiotic resistance. "The results are promising that we gained better understanding about how triclosan is degraded in the natural environment, and can potentially find a way of removing the contaminant from the environment and in the long term fighting the antibiotic resistance problem," Yu "Frank" Yang, assistant professor of environmental engineering at the University, said. Yang and his team's research on how to reduce the presence of triclosan in the environment was recognized among Emerging Investigator Series by the journal Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, a publication of the Royal Society of Chemistry, and published in the April edition as the inside front-cover story. The article describes how the triclosan, used for things like hand sanitizer, detergents, soaps and paints, can be degraded faster in the environment through a process with a combination of metal-reducing bacterium and natural organic matter. While the nation is phasing out triclosan and finding replacements for the detergents, it's pervasive in the environment and is persistent under certain environmental conditions, Yang said. Because of its persistence and lack of efficient removal processes in most water treatment plants, triclosan has been widely detected in natural waters, soils, sediments and biosolids. "Antibiotic resistance induced by antimicrobial or antibiotic agents is a global problem, if they are not degraded rapidly, then bacteria in the environment get exposure and develop resistant genes and then we can't fight it," Yang said. "If we can completely understand the degradation of antimicrobial agent, we can provide a treatment process in engineered and natural environments." The team tested the matrix of a bacteria strain mixed with the organic material to find the condition that degraded triclosan the fastest. Yang's research found a mixture that reduced the half-life of triclosan to about 10 hours. The overall outcome is determined by the concentration of organic material, microbial activities and the chemistry of the water. "Further study and development are needed, and we would like to fully understand the degradation pathways of emerging organohalides and work out cost-effective removal strategies," Yang said. "Both are challenging tasks." The journal Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts recognized Yang, who is also a member of the College of Science's Global Water Center, for his work and honored him with the distinction of "Emerging Investigator." His paper is part of their 2017 "Emerging Investigator Series" which highlights "the best and brightest early career scientists in the environmental chemical sciences." The journal website explains the "Emerging Investigator" distinction "showcases the high quality research being carried out by researchers in the early stages of their independent careers. It highlights up-and-coming scientists who are internationally recognized for making outstanding contributions to their respective fields." In early April, Yang and his group presented this project and other work in nine presentations at the American Chemical Society's 2017 spring meeting in San Francisco, California. He was also selected in early April by the U.S. National Committee for International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry as a 2017 Young Observer for the organizations General Assembly and Global Congress in São Paulo, Brazil, this July. He has been at the University of Nevada, Reno since September 2013 as an assistant professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. He received his doctorate degree from Peking University, China. Since he joined the University, he has secured more than $1 million of federal research grants as principal investigator and Co-PI, and published 14 peer-reviewed manuscripts in top-tier journals in the area. His research is mainly focused on the molecular-level environmental chemistry for critical environmental issues, including carbon cycles and emerging pollutants. The "Dual Role of Organic Matter in the Anaerobic Degradation of Triclosan" study was supported by the University of Nevada, Reno Startup Fund, the Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the China Scholarship Council for the support of Lin Wang, a member of the research team.
News Article | February 17, 2017
CAMARILLO, CA, February 17, 2017 /24-7PressRelease/ -- Perla Hernandez Lastra has joined project management firm S.L. Leonard & Associates as a senior project manager. Prior to joining S.L. Leonard & Associates, Hernandez Lastra served as the project manager on the 115,000 square foot Marciano Art Foundation Museum adaptive re-use project in Los Angeles, with a construction value over $21 million. "Perla brings a wealth of building experience to S.L. Leonard & Associates," says Sean Leonard, founder and president. "She's fluent in Spanish, is a LEED Accredited Professional and has spent a good deal of time managing impressive projects. We're happy to have her join our team." In the short time Hernandez Lastra has been a senior project manager at SLL, she has worked on the Casa Pacifica Centers for Children & Families and the Primestor Development's Amara Regional Shopping Center - both in Camarillo. Casa Pacifica Centers for Children & Families is a $21 million project which consists of 46,000 square feet of state-of-the-art clinical, residential and administrative facilities, including two new cottages for housing youth with significant substance abuse issues, a training center and a renovation of the administrative building. The second phase will incorporate a therapeutic activities center and a new clinical building. Primestor Development's Amara Regional Shopping Center is a 44 acre project with 486,000 gross leasable square feet that will house many major national retailers and is scheduled to break ground this summer. During her tenure at a large national general contractor, one of Hernandez Lastra's major projects was the Great Wolf Lodge in Garden Grove, a 14 acre site containing a 132,000 square foot indoor water park, a 14,000 square foot wave pool, one outdoor and three indoor pools, and a nine-story Hotel Tower with 603 keys. The project also has a three-story lobby core building with 30,000 square feet of conference space and 18,000 square feet of retail and dining facilities, including five restaurants. The site houses a five-level design-build parking structure with 950 stalls. Hernandez Lastra is an instructor at UCLA Extension where she has been teaching the Construction Technology class since 2016. She is also a national trainer for SAP and Prolog. She taught Engineering Practices and Procedures, Field Operations, Technology, and Logistics at Turner's School of Construction Management for Minority/Woman/Disadvantaged Businesses from 2010 - 2016. She is a LEED Accredited Professional and is OSHA 30-hour certified, as well as CPR & First Aid Certified. Additionally, Hernandez Lastra is a member of the Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers, Engineers for a Sustainable World, Social Economic Environmental Design, and Cornell Society of Engineers. Hernandez Lastra holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering from Cornell University and a Master of Engineering Management degree, also from Cornell University. S.L. Leonard & Associates is a comprehensive real estate development and project management firm based in Camarillo with a second office in Torrance. The firm has worked on numerous high-profile projects, including the Camarillo Public Library, the California Endowment's Headquarters and Conference Center, the City of Hope Helford Clinical Research Replacement Hospital, the mixed-use Working Artists Ventura development, the Museum of Ventura County expansion, Charles Drew University's Life Sciences and Nursing Education building and multiple affordable housing projects totaling more than 2,000 units. Prior to starting the firm, Leonard was senior vice president of project management for the Walt Disney Concert Hall. For more information, call (805) 445-4668 or visit http://www.slleonard.com.
News Article | February 27, 2017
A breakthrough envelope sealing technology that promises to transform the way home and commercial buildings are constructed is entering advanced field trials – the final process toward general market introduction. The new technology, called AeroBarrier™, is being showcased this week at the RESNET Building Performance Conference, where Aeroseal LLC, the sole owner of the technology, is signing up new partners interested in implementing AeroBarrier at new construction job sites. AeroBarrier offers a first-of-its-kind approach to effectively sealing the entire building envelope using an aerosolized sealing system that simultaneously measures and seals building envelope leaks in homes, multi-family apartments or commercial buildings. The computerized AeroBarrier process provides a faster, less expensive way to seal the building envelope and quickly meet even the most stringent building specifications for envelope tightness. The system automatically delivers a final certifiable report at the end of the sealing process, guaranteeing results. As part of the technology’s final analysis before general market introduction, Aeroseal LLC is forming partnerships with builders, developers, architects and contractors interested in using the breakthrough technology to build energy efficient structures. All new partners will have the unique advantage of being among the first to gain expertise in applying the technology and the first to market it to their customer base. “AeroBarrier represents a potential sea change in the way homes and buildings are constructed,” said Mark Modera, Principal Inventor, Sempra Energy chair in energy efficiency, professor in Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Director of the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at University of California Davis. “With AeroBarrier, envelope sealing – a routine that is typically a long, expensive, labor-intensive process -- can now be completed in a matter of hours.” For the past 4 years and under grants provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, a team of researchers at the Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC), University of California, Davis have been working to refine and finalize the development of the AeroBarrier technology, a process that has resulted in new worldwide patents. “AeroBarrier builds upon the aeroseal duct sealing technology that has revolutionized the way we seal duct systems,” said Amit Gupta, president and CEO of Aeroseal LLC. “Now, imagine a similar computerized approach to envelope sealing that, in one-step, can quickly seal all the leaks around windows, drywall, electrical outlets, canned lighting and other areas where leaks affect overall building performance.” The technology has already been field tested under various circumstances including a U.S. Department of Energy building project where AeroBarrier was demonstrated to be highly effective at sealing the envelope of newly constructed multifamily buildings and single family homes across the country. Becoming An AeroBarrier Partner Currently in advanced field trials, the technology is expected to be available on the market in early 2018. For more information about AeroBarrier technology or to request additional information on being an AeroBarrier partner, call (937) 428-9300. About Aeroseal LLC The Aeroseal brand is celebrating 20 years in the market with over 600 dealers offering duct sealing services around the world. Aeroseal LLC bought the patents and rights to Aeroseal technology in 2010 with focus on creating a portfolio of industry-changing energy efficiency solutions. For more information about Aeroseal LLC or aeroseal duct sealing technology, visit http://www.aeroseal.com.
News Article | January 20, 2016
Daejeon, Republic of Korea ― The 1974 American disaster film Towering Inferno depicted well the earnest struggles of firefighters engaged in ending a fire at a 138-story skyscraper. To this day, fires at high-rise buildings are considered one of the most dangerous disasters. Skyscraper fires are particularly difficult to contain because of their ability to spread rapidly in high-occupant density spaces and the challenge of fighting fires in the buildings' complex vertical structure. Accessibility to skyscrapers at the time of the fire is limited, and it is hard to assess the initial situation. A research team at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) led by Professor Hyun Myung of the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department developed an unmanned aerial vehicle, named the Fireproof Aerial RObot System (FAROS), which detects fires in skyscrapers, searches the inside of the building, and transfers data in real time from fire scenes to the ground station. As an extended version of Climbing Aerial RObot System (CAROS) that was created in 2014 by the research team, the FAROS can also fly and climb walls. The FAROS, whose movements rely on a quadrotor system, can freely change its flight mode into a spider's crawling on walls, and vice versa, facilitating unimpeded navigation in the labyrinth of narrow spaces filled with debris and rubble inside the blazing building. The drone "estimates" its pose by utilizing a 2-D laser scanner, an altimeter, and an Inertia Measurement Unit sensor to navigate autonomously. With the localization result and using a thermal-imaging camera to recognize objects or people inside a building, the FAROS can also detect and find the fire-ignition point by employing dedicated image-processing technology. The FAROS is fireproof and flame-retardant. The drone's body is covered with aramid fibers to protect its electric and mechanical components from the direct effects of the flame. The aramid fiber skin also has a buffer of air underneath it, and a thermoelectric cooling system based on the Peltier effect to help maintain the air layer within a specific temperature range. The research team demonstrated the feasibility of the localization system and wall-climbing mechanism in a smoky indoor environment. The fireproof test showed that the drone could endure the heat of over 1,000° Celsius from butane gas and ethanol aerosol flames for over one minute. Professor Myung said, "As cities become more crowded with skyscrapers and super structures, fire incidents in these high-rise buildings are life-threatening massive disasters. The FAROS can be aptly deployed to the disaster site at an early stage of such incidents to minimize the damage and maximize the safety and efficiency of rescue mission." The research team has recently started to enhance the performance of the fireproof design for the exteroceptive sensors including a 2-D laser scanner and a thermal-imaging camera because those sensors could be more exposed to fire than other inside sensors and electric components. This research was funded by the KAIST Initiative for Disaster Studies and the KAIST Institute.
News Article | March 24, 2016
With concrete so widely in use today, it seems unimaginable for the world to do away with it. The material is indeed useful but its production, unfortunately, results in about 5 percent of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the planet. That's a lot, so a team of researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles set out to develop an alternative that harnesses all of the benefits of concrete in a more sustainable form, calling the result of their work CO2NCRETE. It's because their sustainable concrete relies on carbon captured from smokestacks. By making concrete a green option and utilizing excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the researchers were able to turn something problematic into something valuable. In fact, J.R. DeShazo, one of the researchers, decided to become a part of the project because he saw it as a possible climate policy game-changer. "This technology tackles global climate change, which is one of the biggest challenges that society faces now and will face over the next century," he said. For the research, DeShazo offered economic and public policy guidance that was incorporated into the work of Gaurav Sant, associate professor and Henry Samueli Fellow in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Richard Kaner, professor in chemistry and biochemistry, and materials science and engineering, Laurent Pilon, professor in mechanical and aerospace engineering and bioengineering and Matthieu Bauchy, assistant professor in civil and environmental engineering. While this isn't the first time that scientists have captured carbon emissions released by power plants, the project is the first attempt at turning captured carbon dioxide into something useful. The researchers are optimistic about the opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, particularly in areas where coal-fire power plants are commonly used. And if their sustainable concrete proves effective, they can share the development with other countries like China who are significant contributors to the world's greenhouse gas emissions. Having produced CO2NCRETE in the lab, the researchers' next move is to develop it further and make it available commercially, showing sustainable concrete can be used in the real world. According to the researchers, they are not merely trying to come up with a building material. Rather, they are developing a process solution that involves integrating technology to make it possible to go from a primary component like carbon dioxide directly to a finished product, which is CO2NCRETE.
News Article | January 20, 2016
The quadcopter whines in midair, situated inside a room. A jutting obstacle blocks its path to the room’s other side, only allowing a slim margin for the quadcopter to pass through. But the drone looks too big. It hovers near a wall before the tight gap, and flips on its top, rolling along the wall until it passes to the other side. Developed by researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), the Fireproof Aerial Robot System (FAROS) is a new unmanned aerial vehicle, which is meant to detect and navigate fires in skyscrapers while relaying real-time data to ground crews. “As cities become more crowded with skyscrapers and super structures, fire incidents in these high-rise buildings are life-threatening massive disasters,” said Prof. Hyun Myung, of KAIST’s Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept. “The FAROS can be aptly deployed to the disaster site at an early stage of such incidents to minimize the damage and maximize the safety and efficiency of (a) rescue mission.” The FAROS is an extension of the research team’s Climbing Aerial RObot System (CAROS), created in 2014. Navigated autonomously, the drone uses a 2-D laser scanner, an altimeter, and an Inertia Measurement Unit sensor to explore its surroundings. Image-processing technology allows the vehicle to detect the fire-ignition point, and thermal0imaging camera allows it to identify objects and people. Additionally, the drone’s body is shielded with aramid fibers, which protect the electrical and mechanical components from flames. A buffer of air is situated beneath the aramid fibers, and is maintained with a thermoelectric cooling system based on the Peltier effect, which keeps the air at a specific temperature range. During a fireproof test, the researchers showed the drone was capable of enduring heats over 1,000 C from both butane gas and ethanol aerosol flames for over one minute. The team is currently working to improve the fire resistance of the drone’s sensors, including the 2-D laser scanner and the thermal-imaging camera.
News Article | November 21, 2016
“Divine Inspiration For Daily Living”: a spiritual handbook filled with everyday devotions to quiet the mind and allow God's love and purpose to prevail. “Divine Inspiration For Daily Living” is the creation of published author, James Taiwo, the founder and senior pastor of World Outreach Evangelical Ministry Inc, New York City. He is also the publisher of Trumpet Media Ministries. He obtained a Doctor of Theology Degree from Lighthouse Seminary, Beebe Arkansas. He also obtained a Master of Science Degree in Environmental Engineering from Polytechnic University, New York. Displaying multiple talents, James Taiwo practices Civil and Environmental Engineering, preaches gospel, and plays saxophone. He has written over 1000 free articles online, and still counting. Also, as an engineer and a preacher, Dr. Taiwo continues to implement various means of diversifying gospel to adapt to fast changing technology of our days. James believes that “...this book will help you draw closer to God and maximize his benefits in your life”. Published by Christian Faith Publishing, Dr. James Taiwo’s new book illuminates the divine in every moment and encourages the reader to incorporate God's spirit into all things. This book, "Divine Inspiration For Daily Living", helps readers to understand how the scriptures, which date back to thousand years, still remain relevant to our present day situations. With concise and precise bible life application lessons and prayers provided, God’s word can no more be viewed as a mere historical book. Readers will understand and feel the spectacular weight that the bible still carries. Surely, God desires that people come close to learn how they can receive his benefits. A mere exercise of bible study is not enough to tap into the Creator’s reserved treasures. Believers must be inspired to have accurate interpretation of the bible, and be impacted. With this book handy, any Christian can boast of sound bible knowledge and defend his/her faith. The 365 Days of Practical Life Lessons and Prayers provided in the book relate to both Old and New Testaments of the bible, and they will motivate believers to keep God’s love afresh in their mind. The resources provided in the book will help both believers and non-believers to understand the true meaning of Christianity to double and triple their blessings from God. View a synopsis of “Divine Inspiration For Daily Living" on YouTube. Consumers can purchase “Divine Inspiration For Daily Living” at traditional brick & mortar bookstores, or online at Amazon.com, Apple iTunes store, Kobo or Barnes and Noble. For additional information or inquiries about “Divine Inspiration For Daily Living”, contact the Christian Faith Publishing media department at 866-554-0919.
News Article | August 31, 2016
Description: This new 96,000 gsf building at Washington State University will house interdisciplinary science and engineering programs advancing new technologies in sustainable materials, atmospheric research and water quality. The laboratory includes a Composite Materials and Engineering Center, the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research and Civil and Environmental Engineering. Support Spaces require tightly controlled environments and structural testing capabilities, high bay spaces, rooftop research terrace and collaborative spaces. Housing a wide range of research and education activities, WSU’s leadership in clean technology is helping drive the creation of new construction and agricultural industries that will help reduce the region’s dependence on foreign oil, minimize carbon footprints, and improve air and water quality. With successful and productive research and education programs across the sciences, engineering, and allied fields, the PETB will bring together disciplines often separated on university campuses. The shared common space provided by this new building will foster the synergy needed to drive innovation and find new solutions to complex problems that can be transferred to industry for commercialization. The PETB is constructed using renewable materials and technologies developed at WSU, including wood composites, recycled concrete, and pervious pavement. The PETB also incorporates water capture and re-use, heat recovery, individual control of air quality factors, maximized daylighting, optimal siting and incorporation into its landscape, along with numerous other features that will make it the “greenest” building built to date in the WSU Pullman campus. The PETB is designed to be a technological showcase and model for minimizing the carbon footprint of the built environment. More importantly to those who work and study there, the PETB is a comfortable, high-quality place to collaborate on the next generation of breakthroughs that will keep the state of Washington’s economy thriving in the 21st century.
News Article | March 15, 2016
Imagine a world with little or no concrete. Would that even be possible? After all, concrete is everywhere—on our roads, our driveways, in our homes, bridges and buildings. For the past 200 years, it's been the very foundation of much of our planet. But the production of cement, which when mixed with water forms the binding agent in concrete, is also one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, about 5 percent of the planet's greenhouse gas emissions comes from concrete. An even larger source of carbon dioxide emissions is flue gas emitted from smokestacks at power plants around the world. Carbon emissions from those plants are the largest source of harmful global greenhouse gas in the world. A team of interdisciplinary researchers at UCLA has been working on a unique solution that may help eliminate these sources of greenhouse gases. Their plan would be to create a closed-loop process: capturing carbon from power plant smokestacks and using it to create a new building material—CO2NCRETE—that would be fabricated using 3D printers. That's "upcycling." "What this technology does is take something that we have viewed as a nuisance—carbon dioxide that's emitted from smokestacks—and turn it into something valuable," said J.R. DeShazo, professor of public policy at the UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs and director of the UCLA Luskin Center for Innovation. "I decided to get involved in this project because it could be a game-changer for climate policy," DeShazo said. "This technology tackles global climate change, which is one of the biggest challenges that society faces now and will face over the next century." DeShazo has provided the public policy and economic guidance for this research. The scientific contributions have been led by Gaurav Sant, associate professor and Henry Samueli Fellow in Civil and Environmental Engineering; Richard Kaner, distinguished professor in chemistry and biochemistry, and materials science and engineering; Laurent Pilon, professor in mechanical and aerospace engineering and bioengineering; and Matthieu Bauchy, assistant professor in civil and environmental engineering. This isn't the first attempt to capture carbon emissions from power plants. It's been done before, but the challenge has been what to do with the carbon dioxide once it's captured. "We hope to not only capture more gas," DeShazo said, "but we're going to take that gas and, instead of storing it, which is the current approach, we're going to try to use it to create a new kind of building material that will replace cement." "The approach we are trying to propose is you look at carbon dioxide as a resource—a resource you can reutilize," Sant said. "While cement production results in carbon dioxide, just as the production of coal or the production of natural gas does, if we can reutilize CO2 to make a building material which would be a new kind of cement, that's an opportunity." The researchers are excited about the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas in the U.S., especially in regions where coal-fired power plants are abundant. "But even more so is the promise to reduce the emissions in China and India," DeShazo said. "China is currently the largest greenhouse gas producer in the world, and India will soon be number two, surpassing us." Thus far, the new construction material has been produced only at a lab scale, using 3-D printers to shape it into tiny cones. "We have proof of concept that we can do this," DeShazo said. "But we need to begin the process of increasing the volume of material and then think about how to pilot it commercially. It's one thing to prove these technologies in the laboratory. It's another to take them out into the field and see how they work under real-world conditions." "We can demonstrate a process where we take lime and combine it with carbon dioxide to produce a cement-like material," Sant said. "The big challenge we foresee with this is we're not just trying to develop a building material. We're trying to develop a process solution, an integrated technology which goes right from CO2 to a finished product. "3-D printing has been done for some time in the biomedical world," Sant said, "but when you do it in a biomedical setting, you're interested in resolution. You're interested in precision. In construction, all of these things are important but not at the same scale. There is a scale challenge, because rather than print something that's 5 centimeters long, we want to be able to print a beam that's 5 meters long. The size scalability is a really important part." Another challenge is convincing stakeholders that a cosmic shift like the researchers are proposing is beneficial—not just for the planet, but for them, too. "This technology could change the economic incentives associated with these power plants in their operations and turn the smokestack flue gas into a resource countries can use, to build up their cities, extend their road systems," DeShazo said. "It takes what was a problem and turns it into a benefit in products and services that are going to be very much needed and valued in places like India and China." DeShazo cited the interdisciplinary team of researchers as a reason for the success of the project. "What UCLA offers is a brilliant set of engineers, material scientists and economists who have been working on pieces of this problem for 10, 20, 30 years," he said. "And we're able to bring that team together to focus on each stage." According to Sant, UCLA is the perfect place to tackle sustainability challenges. "As one of the leading universities in the world, we see ourselves as having a blue-sky approach," Sant said. "We see ourselves wanting to develop technologies that might be considered fanciful at one point but become reality very quickly. So we see ourselves looking at a blue sky and saying, well then, let's come up with ideas which will change the world."
News Article | November 16, 2016
Montreal, November 16, 2016 -- Alberta's rivers are the main source of water for agriculture in Canada's Prairie provinces. But climate change and increased human interference mean that the flow of these headwaters is under threat. This could have major implications for Canadian gross domestic product, and even global food security. A new study published in Hydrological Processes sheds light on sources of streamflow variability and change in Alberta's headwaters that can affect irrigated agriculture in the Prairies. This provides the knowledge base to develop improved water resource management to effectively adapt to evolving river flow conditions. "This study is a call for better understanding of the complex interactions between natural and human-made change in river systems" says the study's lead author, Ali Nazemi, assistant professor in Concordia's Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering. "We hope this can result in better human management to promote water, food and energy security both in Canada and around the world." Nazemi and his co-authors* developed a mathematical process to examine streamflow and climate data and carry out a case study on eight streams within the Oldman River Basin in Southern Alberta. They discovered various forms of change in the annual average streamflow and timing of the yearly peak in Alberta's headwater streams throughout the 20th century. "We saw that change in streamflow can be mainly linked to temperature variance, as well as to human regulations through water resource management," says Nazemi. "From the natural perspective, we found that air temperature is the main driver of change in Alberta's headwaters due to its effect on snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, where the headwaters are initiated. But various components of temperature affect the streamflow differently - this shows the complexity of streamflow response to climate variability and change." They found that Pacific Decadal Oscillation -- a climate variability signal similar to El Niño that's linked to the sea surface temperature in the Pacific Ocean -- is the main driver of change in average annual flow. In contrast, other triggers of regional air temperature -- such as climate change -- are the key sources behind major variations in the timing of the annual peak in Alberta's headwaters. "In addition to these natural sources, human-made factors such as reservoir regulation can profoundly change the streamflow characteristics," Nazemi explains. "Although the general tendency of human regulation is to reduce the severity of above? and below?average streamflow conditions, it can also increase the severity of both, if the system is not well managed." Indeed, the Canadian Prairies have been, and will continue to be the subject of major variability and change, as seen in extreme conditions such as the Dust Bowl of the 1930s and the devastating flood of 2013 in southern Alberta.. Nazemi hopes that this study will lead to the development of effective regional water resource management in the Prairies and beyond. "The major river systems around the world are now highly regulated by human activity -- and the natural streamflow regime is perturbed by climate change. This study can provide a scientific methodology to understand the effects of different natural and anthropogenic drivers on river flows. This is the first step towards development of effective management strategies that can face the ever-increasing threats to our precious freshwater resources in Canada and globally." *Nazemi co-authored the study with Howard S. Wheater, Kwok Pan Chun, Barrie Bonsal and Muluneh Mekonnen.