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Konopacka D.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Jesionkowska K.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Kruczynska D.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Stehr R.,JORK | And 16 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Macdonald L.,Civil
Color Research and Application | Year: 2015

In an unconstrained colour naming experiment conducted over the web, 330 participants named 600 colour samples in English. The 30 most frequent monolexemic colour terms were analyzed with regards to frequency, consensus among genders, response times, consistency of use, denotative volume in the Munsell and OSA colour spaces and inter-experimental agreement. Each of these measures served for ranking colour term salience; rankings were then combined to give a composite index of basicness. The results support the extension of English inventory from the 11 basic colour terms of Berlin and Kay to 13 terms by the addition of lilac and turquoise. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Bew M.,Innovation and Skills | Palmer D.,BSI Group | Broyd T.,Civil
SSS 2015 - 10th International Space Syntax Symposium | Year: 2015

The pervasive deployment of "smart city" and "smart building" projects in cities world-wide is driving innovation on many fronts including; technology, telematics, engineering and entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on the technical and engineering perspectives of BIM and smart cities, by extending building and urban morphology studies as to respond to the challenges posed by Big Data, and smart infrastructure. The proposed framework incorporates theoretical and modelling descriptions to verify how network-based models can act as the backbone skeletal representation of both building and urban complexity, and yet relate to environmental performance and smart infrastructure. The paper provides some empirical basis to support data information models through building dependency networks as to represent the relationships between different existing and smart infrastructure components. These dependency networks are thought to inform decisions on how to represent building and urban data sets in response to different social and environmental performance requirements, feeding that into void and solid descriptions of data maturity models. It is concluded that network-based models are fundamental to comprehend and represent the complexity of cities and inform urban design and public policy practices, in the design and operation phases of infrastructure projects.


Zhang J.,Electrical and Computer Engineering | Josse F.,Electrical and Computer Engineering | Heinrich S.,Civil | Nigro N.,Marquette University | And 2 more authors.
2013 Joint European Frequency and Time Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium, EFTF/IFC 2013 | Year: 2013

The resonant characteristics of laterally vibrating rectangular hammerhead microcantilevers in viscous liquid media are investigated. The rectangular hammerhead microcantilever is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam (stem) and a rigid body (head). A modified semi-analytical expression for the hydrodynamic function in terms of the Reynolds number, Re, and aspect ratio, h/b, is proposed to rapidly evaluate the sensing characteristics. Using this expression, the resonance frequency, quality factor and normalized surface mass sensitivity are investigated as a function of the dimensions of the microcantilever and liquid properties. Guidelines for design of hammerhead microcantilever geometry are proposed to achieve efficient sensing platforms for liquid-phase operation. The improvement in the sensing area and characteristics are expected to yield higher sensitivity of detection and improved signal-to-noise ratio in liquid-phase chemical sensing applications. © 2013 IEEE.


Jung S.,Florida A&M University | Kim S.-R.,Dong - A University | Patil A.,Florida A&M University | Hung L.C.,Civil
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2015

Offshore wind turbine towers experience large base moments because of wind and wave loading. The flexibility of the foundation should be considered when analyzing the structural response of towers. Previous studies showed that conventional p-y curves are not suitable in designing the foundation. More advanced methods, such as the finite element method, are necessary to model the offshore wind turbine foundation. In addition, these studies focused on the analysis of the foundation itself, so the effect on the structural response of the tower merits further research. The present study aimed to compare different foundation modeling approaches, focusing on their effects on the structural response of the wind turbine tower. We integrated wind turbine aerodynamic simulation with different models of the foundation. We confirmed that ignoring the flexibility of the foundation caused significant error in wind turbine tower behavior. Between the p-y curve-based model and finite element-based model, the change in maximum moment was insignificant, but the maximum tilt angle increased over 14% in the finite element model. Therefore, the finite element approach is recommended to obtain a conservative design when large tilt angles may cause serviceability issues. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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